Thursday, February 28, 2019
The Tree of noesis It is important for orderliness to find a certain credit of experience, as it is a powerful factor which champions cabaret to attain success. As a good example of the signifi flowerpotce of knowledge for society, the Tree of Knowledge from the tend of Eden represents, not just a source of absolute knowledge, moreover how desp whiletely military personnel nature seeks that perfect source. However, the Tree of Knowledge does not exist in the real world.Thus, society is facing a enigma of finding the most effective way to lift accurate knowledge because mistaken knowledge has no value. In his essay The Hive, historian and generator Marshall Poe points away 2 sources for knowledge fond consensus and experts. In the past, it was leaden to gather knowledge efficiently due to equivocation, and experts were considered to be the most original source of knowledge. But today, the net profit has tryd society with the convenient environment for finding and storing information.In his essay, Poe discusses the phenomenon of the web-site Wikipedia as an example of a successful effort in cooperative knowledge, which is produced during the move of communication and negotiation by society and experts c at one cartridge holderrning the information regarding an purpose of study. A professor at Harvard University and author of Reporting spanking from Tomorrow, Daniel gilbert suggests relying on the experiences of others, whom he calls surrogates, in order to obtain more au thuslytic knowledge. Collaborative knowledge is establish on societys incarnate experiences.It is meant to accumulate and constantly update information from society. On the other hand, experts atomic amount 18 a key for progress in society as they carry out deeper investigate intimately a subject. Therefore, in order to produce secure knowledge, society must consult with experts, while experts should consider the experiences of other spate when conducting thei r research. It faculty seem at the first sight that the only if real source of knowledge be experts, as they nurture more smart and prolonged experiences through practice and education in a contingent field.Therefore, it is a common belief that in order to obtain full-strength knowledge, society has to rely on the competence of experts. In his essay, Poe says that one of the criticisms of Wikipedia in its early stage was the point that unless experts were writing and vetting the material, the articles were inevitably going to be inaccurate (Poe 275). However, human history provides evidence that refutes this statement by proving that what once was considered as absolute knowledge was later questioned.For example, in the 18th century, Isaac newtons laws of motion became a revolution in a scientific world and for the next 200 years they remained inconte constant until Albert Einstein introduced his ideas that revealed shortcomings of normalitys theory. Thus, society dissolv enot blindly rely on the conclusions of experts because, at their core, they are like all other raft who pass along their beliefs in an effort to create people whose brainpowers think like theirs ( gilbert 171). consort to gigabyte, almost some(prenominal) time we tell anyone anything, we are attempting to change over the way their brains operate attempting to change the way they see the world so that their view of it more well resembles our own (Gilbert 171). Experts attempt to do same thing, but their reputation in society gives their ideas an advantage to be successfully transmitted and accepted as knowledge. Still, accuracy of this knowledge might be questionable in the forthcoming. In order to understand how society decides if a certain idea or belief can become knowledge, it is important to look at the process of producing knowledge.Individuals generate personal beliefs from their own views. However, these views are based on already existing socio-cultural knowledge. A fterwards, using shared language, individuals bring their ideas and beliefs to society by do public statements. Further, these beliefs whitethorn become knowledge through social interaction, communication, discussion, clarification, and negotiation. According to Gilbert, any belief that increases communication has a good chance of existence transmitted over and over again (Gilbert 173). Therefore, social interaction is a medium that allows ideas to become a part of collaborative knowledge.However, in his essay, Gilbert points out that while accurate beliefs give society power, which dumbfounds it easier to understand why they are so readily transmitted from one mind to another, false beliefs have a great chance to be propagated if they happen to promote stable societies because people who hold these beliefs tend to live in stable societies, which provide the means by which false beliefs propagate (Gilbert 173). Thus, even false ideas may become knowledge if society decides so. Such decisions might lead to stiff conclusions that have no value for society.According to Poe, the community decides that devil plus two equals four the same way it decides what apple is by consensus but if the community changes its mind and decides that two plus two equals five, then two plus two does equal five (Poe 275). In other words, society has an ability to make judgments of truth and falsehood, and knowledge produced by social consensus can be conduct and inaccurate. Nevertheless, inaccurate knowledge, sooner or later, will be revealed and questioned by society because the primary purpose of knowledge is to dish up the inevitably of society and help it to improve and grow.Individuals, as well as the whole society, can only attain success and progress if they have a reliable source of knowledge. It is a strong incentive that makes people search for truth. In his essay, Poe points out that people who contribute into Wikipedia have no interest other then truth in doing all this work (Poe 277). Today, the vast interconnectedness of the Internet makes it possible for individuals from all over the world to share their experiences and ideas on the spherical level.Thereby, collaborative knowledge can be constantly negotiated, updated, and renegotiated, and its quality may improve just like the quality on articles in Wikipedia generally increases with the number of eyeballs (Poe 276). As the process of producing collaborative knowledge improves its reliability, efficiency, and fecundity with the new era of Internet technologies, it creates a genuinely valuable database for experts, who can use collaborative knowledge as a resource of information and experiences collected by society for expertise.According to Gilbert, humanity is a living library of information about what it feels like to do just about anything (Gilbert 171). Every individual possesses a great deal of unique accumulative knowledge that he or she gained throughout life. That is why exp eriences of other individuals should be taken into account by experts in order to produce more accurate and objective knowledge. Today, in the Internet environment, it has become much easier to find surrogates with particular experiences.Experts should consider these experiences during their research and constantly update their data and information based on collaborative knowledge. On the other hand, the fact that the Internet has gained so much popularity in society might make people neglect the role of experts in the process of producing knowledge. Since it has become relatively easy to find surrogates in the virtual(prenominal) environment and ask them directly about their experiences, collaborative knowledge might be sufficient enough to fulfill societys needs as a dependable source of knowledge. In his essay, Poe points out that addicted the right technology, round groups of self-interested individuals will unite to create something they could not produce by themselves (Poe 2 67). Wikipedia is a good example of this phenomenon. Instead of relying on experts to salve articles according to their expertise, Wikipedia lets anyone write about anything (Poe 264). Based on a large number of individuals who are constantly working on improving articles and peoples tendencies to strive for truth, Wikipedia could become the end of the search for a reliable source of knowledge. However, it is important not to underestimate the role of experts in society.In his essay, Gilbert noticed that, if you ask a child what to do when an individual is hesitating about making some decision, the child will say that he or she should ask the teacher (Gilbert 170). Throughout all human history, experts were called in for advice on their respective subject because of their extensive knowledge or ability based on research, experience, or occupation in a particular empyrean of study. Their knowledge and experiences are already unique, simply because experts spend more time studying t he subject than an average person. It explains the fact that most innovations in human society were made by experts.Moreover, by collecting and systematizing experiences of other individuals, experts serve as surrogates for society as well. Overtime, results of their research projects accepted as knowledge become a part of social consensus. Thereby, expertise is still very important and must be taken into consideration by society as a source of knowledge. In order to be entirely reliable, knowledge requires absolute certainty, as opposite to belief or tactile sensation about which there is more doubt. However, as a process of social communication, knowledge is never absolute.Although its character is to be taken as final exam truth, knowledge remains as a subject of possible future questioning, reinterpretation, and negotiation. The Tree of Knowledge, as a source of true knowledge, is an unattainable purpose for society. Neither expertise nor collaborative knowledge alone can be considered as the best way to produce knowledge. Only their collaboration can bring the most reliable results. Today, the Internet helps to speed up the processes of communication, storage, and negotiation of information that play a significant role in producing collaborative knowledge and positively affecting its quality.Thus, referring to societys collaborative experience, experts can produce more objective and reliable knowledge. Works Cited Gilbert, Daniel. Reporting Live from Tomorrow. Emerging Contemporary Readings for Writers. Ed. Barclay Barrios. Boston Bedford/St. Martins, 2010. 169-189. Print. Poe, Marshall. The Hive. Emerging Contemporary Readings for Writers. Ed. Barclay Barrios. Boston Bedford/St. Martins, 2010. 264-277. Print.
No metaphor domiciliate capture whole the complexity of social dynamics in the U. S. Melting pot ignores the perseveration and reconfiguration of the heathenity oer the generations. Mosaic, much more than apt for pluralistic societies such as Kenya or India, is too static a metaphor it fails to getting even in to account the easy penetration of many ethnic boundaries. Nor is salad bowl eliminate the ingredients of a salad bowl atomic number 18 mixed but do not change. Rainbow is a tantalizing metaphor, but rainbows disappear.Symphony, like rainbow, implies near perfect unison both fail to take into account the vicissitude and range of ethnic conflict in the United States. The close to accurately descriptive metaphor, the angiotensin converting enzyme that best explains the dynamics of ethnicity, is kaleidoscope. American ethnicity is kaleidoscopic, i. e. complex and varied, changing form, pattern, color continually shifting from one set of relations to another rapidly changing. When a kaleidoscope is in motion, the parts give the appearance of relationships.The viewer sees and endless variety of variegated patterns, just as takes place on the American ethnic landscape. - Lawrence Fuchs ( literary works for Composition 1032) Identity in America was the make-up chosen by my side 201 study group. This theme was taken from chapter twenty two of the literature for composition Reading and Writing Argu handst text book. However, I cogitate the broad theme of Identity in America to the more contract theme of The Display of African American men in the media. I chose this theme or outlet because I felt that I can relate to it and as a matter of fact, it was also kindle to me. unless in grade to conduct my enquiry on the particular topic, I came up with the following question, How has the identity of African American men been viewinged by the media nixly or arbitraryly? This question was chosen in order to provoke an argument for countersign. I conducted several(prenominal)(prenominal) questions in order to check information somewhat my selected topic.The medias display of the identity of African American men can be discussed or looked at from two angles prejudiciously or dictatorially. First, from my experience I can say that the media displays African American men in both lights, banishly and positively. But after conducting interviews with several individuals, my opinion has somewhat changed. I was always awargon of the negative images of African/black men in the media. But I was not aw are that this display had evolved overtime. My first interview was conducted with April T.Glasgow, a communications major at the University of the Virgin Islands on Wednesday 20th February 2008, at approximately ten oclock in the morning. We conducted the interview at her dorms lobby. I had explained the topic prior to meeting with her, so she already had an idea well-nigh what issue the discussion would be addressing. Genera lly, her opinion was that black men were worldness exploited and visualised negatively by the media. She also utter potently that black men were too often portrayed or addicted the roles of thugs, gangsters, and pimps in movie theatres and magazines.In addition, a suggestion she made on how we could reason turn up this stereotype was that black batch must unite and stand up once against these negative portrayals especially those in rap music videos. The second interview was carried out that same day with prof Alex Randall. His general statements were that the media has changed over the years. The negative portrayals of the 1960s and 1970s arrive at changed, Randall verbalise. Randall felt that in modern times, people of color were treated more fairly and given a more positive portrayal in the media.Randall verbalize that there were many positive images in the media of African Americans, such as Denzel Washington, Barack Obama, Michael Jordan, and Bill Cosby. In additio n, Randall say that in previous years no such image could have been seen in the media. We are rational human beings and its our choice to hold what part of the spectrum of negative and positive images we would want to emulate, verbalise Randall. This statement impacted me and slightly changed my opinion on the topic. At that point in conducting my master(a) explore for the base, my position on the topic has somewhat been altered.After conducting the interviews with April T. Glasgow and Professor Alexander Randall I have become more open given(p) to the issue. I would admit that I was initially a bit one-sided and reserved on the topic prior to evaluating the topic from both sides negatively and positively. In order to decide which position I was going to take I would have to do more utility(prenominal) research on the topic. Since I started this research paper my observation and assessment of the media have taken a different turn.I now compare and contrast men of other rac es in the media to African American men. My secondary research was, for the most part, completed using net income sources. The denominations that I discovered on the sack up were very useful and contributed greatly to my research. Three internet denominations were analyzed to get through the secondary data for my paper. The first article I examined was The Medias bias against black men in America. The article was basically a discussion of a piece written in the New York Times close the charter of American black men.The author, Arm soaked Williams, stated that the New York Times article was another example of major media outlets using negative statistics to consistently build black men as the scourge of this estate. Williams made several strong and enkindle statements throughout the article that I thought was beneficial to this research paper. For example, according to Williams, The continual coverage of the black mans plight instead of his progress only hinders his grow th, holds back our country from true equality, and hides the integrity about the opportunities and challenges that we all face(Williams 4).Williams also suggested that the American public should challenge the lack of coverage of American black progress in this country (Williams 5). In the last century black men have literally gone from being slaves to business owners, government leaders, lawyers, doctors, firemen, generals, entertainers, and educators. No other suppress class of people anywhere else in the world has advanced its standing(a) in a society this quickly (Williams 6). I was really affect by the way Armstrong used this statement to present his argument.In addition, Williams stated that the incidence of drug use, crime, scandal, divorce, and other social ills have increased dramatically for white men, but these statistics are not reported as problems about white men in America (Williams 6). Approximately 9 out of 10 serial killers are white males between the ages of twe nty and cardinal five. Yet we never hear these statistics repeated over and over again in the mainstream press, fashioning these crimes synonymous with one particular race as in this case with blacks (Williams 9). Later in the article Williams explained the image the media is creating internationally.The abroad media continuously places black men in negative positions such as school dropouts, irresponsible fathers, and victims of perpetual racism. The manner in which these stories are constructed and then, displayed to listeners and readers eliminates the opening night of believing that black men do not have positive roles (Williams 10). Therefore, I agree with Williams that the repetitive negative articles can create a vicious cycle of harmful images and low expectations of black men. The Black project in the White Mind is the title of the second internet article that I examined.The article was useful in constructing my opinion on the topic of how African American men are disp layed in the media whether negatively or positively. The article presented some useful statistical data that was quite interesting and yet shocking to me. In this article by Robert M. Entman, he stated that a mug shot of a Black defendant is quaternary times more in all likelihood to appear in a topical anesthetic television system intelligence report than of a White defendant (Entman 2). He went on to say that the accused is two times more likely to be shown physically restrained in a local television news report than when the accused is a white man (Entman 2). concord to Entman, The name of the accused is two times more likely to be shown on screen in a local TV news report if the defendant is black, rather than white (Entman 2). In addition, he stated that while black actors are now more visible in media, it is an open question as to how well they are being delineate (Entman 2). The Third article that I examined was Black youth and intensity media menses research and emerg ing questions and I found it to be the most interesting of the three.This article was written by Craig Watkins, an Associate Professor of Sociology and Radio-Television- Film at the University of Texas at Austin. The article was basically an outline of some of the important research findings and emergent issues that examine the changing relationship between black American youth and the mass media industry (Watkins 5). Watkins stated that for most of its history the mass media industry has produced images that distort and misrepresent the complexities of the African American experience (Watkins 9).He stated that contemporary media representations of African Americans can be best depict as paradoxical because blacks are simultaneously underrepresented and overrepresented in American media polish (Watkins 9). According to Watkins, blacks are underrepresented in many areas of mass media they are over represented in television sports broadcasts and crime and violence related portrayals (Watkins 13). Watkins said that images of blacks in magazines have increased but they are predominantly portrayed in athletic roles. According to Watkins, African American men are more likely to appear as athletes or musicians (Watkins 14).The strongest statement throughout the article was when Watkins stated that the athleticization of the black men in the media reproduces and popularizes long-standing myths about biologic and intellectual differences between blacks and whites (Watkins 15). Further analysis of Watkins article indicated that when African Americans are portrayed in television news it is generally in aggressive, violent, or criminal roles. Also, a recent analysis of the film industry asserts that blacks break away to be restricted to low budget features that focus disproportionately on crime, violence, and youth delinquency.The repetitious display of blacks in athletic roles creates a limit range of adult and professional role models for young black males being th at they are faced with only few media images of successful African American men. The internet articles that I examined clearly showed that there is strong evidence to manifest that African American men are negatively and unfairly displayed in the media. After examining these internet articles, I felt that even though they were some positive images of African American men in the media the majority of images are in some way biased or negative.After evaluating and examining my internet sources, I turned back my attention to my English 201 text book, literature for Composition Reading and Writing Arguments to get some more acuteness on the matter. While reading through chapter twenty-three, I came up on a quote from Lawrence Fuchs that I found to be tied in well with my overall all theme of identity in America. I decided to place this quote at the beginning of the research paper a sort of introduction to the overall theme. I chose this quote because it describes the complexity and in ternal conflicts of identity in America.Speaking of conflicts between identities, Hotel Rwanda is a film that displays such conflict to the extreme. This film was shown in class by my English professor because she said that it was in some way related to our theme and that it could also be used as a part of our secondary research. I did not really understand the connection with our theme until I saw the film. Hotel Rwanda is a historical drama about the hotel manager capital of Minnesota Rusesabagina played by Don Cheadle during the Rwandan genocide and was directed by terry cloth George in 2004.The movie is really based on the Rwandan genocide that occurred in 1994 where almost one million of both Tutsi and Hutu individuals were killed. In the movie which is a reflection of what actually took place, the media was used to instigate conflicts between the Tutsi and Hutu. Throughout the actual conflict the media was used as a tool to falsely display Tutsis as the scourge of Rwanda. For example, the radio station, RTLM was used to spread negative and hate messages about the Tutsis such as Why do we hate the Tutsis? They are cockroachesRwanda is Hutu land. (United Arts. Dir. terry George. United States, 2004) All in all, it is quite unvarnished from the primary and secondary research that there are both negative and positive displays of African American men in the media. Since the interviews I am more aware that the display of African Americans has changed over time for the better. However, from the profit articles I have discovered that there are still a lot of negative images of African American men in the media. In addition, I learned that there are still many biases when presenting African American men in media whether on radio, television, or magazines.Overall, the research was very interesting and informative. April T. Glasgow and Professor Alexander Randall were very helpful in making my research paper a success. From carrying out this research paper I was able to conduct some interesting interviews, especially with Professor Randall. I was truly able to critically interpret and analyze the investigation in addition to improving my overall research skills. The research process was a learning experience that I will never forget. Works Cited Barnet, Sylvan, Burto William and Cain E. William. Literature for Composition.New York Longman, 2007. Entman, Robert and Rojecki, Andrew. Media and its Portrayal of Black Americans. racerelations. about. com. New York. 2008. . Glasgow, April T. Personal Interview. 20 Feb. 2008. Hotel Rwanda. Dir. Terry George. Lions Gate Films and United Artists, 2004. Randall, Alexander. Personal Interview. 20 Feb. 2008. Watkins, S. Craig, Black Youth and mickle Media Current Research and Emerging Questions. http//www. rcgd. isr. umich. edu/prba/perspectives/winter2000/cwatkins. pdf. Williams, Armstrong. The Medias Bias Against Black manpower in America. 31 March 2006. .
Wednesday, February 27, 2019
Appreciating medication as the universal language of the soul is to a greater extent of an instinct and should not be tiring. However, dealing with harmony blueprintally exposes us to a fate of technical aspects that may appear a pocket-sized complicated especially for beginners who flushtually get exhausted in the instruction process.But not all technical issues remain confusing. In music studies, heartbeat is perhaps easiest understood. It is almost an automatic information absorbed by a listener without having to disembodied spirit at a chart or any written guide. The simple hand clap or stomping of the feet acquaints our ears so we stool easily follow a tune. Even children can be surprisingly responsive to the music they listen to. Because it is fundamental, learning music musical rhythm would not take too much of your time. By simply management the mind, one can easily go to the next level.Body unison meter is the arrangement of rhythm in fixed, regular patterns with a provide number of beats or pulse in uniform measures (Dudley et al, pp. 240). At this point, the word measure becomes the main concern. Formal musical regions indicate the meter applied finished time signature, which is the fraction number indicated beside the clef symbol at the beginning of the faculty or that five horizontal placement lines that hold the notes (Fig 1).The numerator tells us how many another(prenominal) introductory beats there are in each measure, and the denominator tells the basic duration value of the beat (Dudley et al, pp. 241). It consists of equal divisions and subdivisions translated into counts of 1-&2-&-1-&-2 (Schmidt-Jones, pp. 3) or wizard two, ONE two (Dudley et al, pp. 241). This depends on the types of music meter used.Fig. 1 The staff, plural form stavesThere are actually two traditional patterns of music meter widely used in Western music, the bivalent, triple, and quadruple, which breaks into simple and compound sub-patterns. For exa mple, the duple pattern have simple duple and compound duple the corresponding goes for the rest. In a simple meter, each beat is basically split into halves. In compound meters, each beat is divided into thirds. (Schmidt-Jones)This can be written asDuple simple 1-and-2-and-1-and-2 2/4 leash simple 1-and-2-and-3-and-1-and-2-and-3 3/4Quadruple simple 1-and-2-and-3-and-4-and-1-and-2-and-3-and-4 4/4Duple compound 1-and-a-2-and-1-and-a-2 6/8 (pp. 3)Sometimes, a single scrap can soften a number of time signatures. Sometimes, it can contain no definite pattern at all. A music piece that does not follow a specific time signature is called detached meter. This is common in Gregorian chants or plainsong, and some cultural music that has distorted beats and pulses, which can be really frustrating for a listener as they can be hardly followed. There are also experimental musicians who does not stick to certain music patterns. inductionMusic meter is one of the basic elements of music tha t is evidently swooning to learn until we can come up with a professionally intentional composition. Musicians and listeners to day has more advantage as music has progressed with a lot of new things to discover and experiment with. One only needs to look a few years back to know its historic details, which can be more interesting than todays versions. Anyone can even educate themselves about it with the help of comprehensive and concise reading materials.ReferencesDudley, L., Faricy, A., Rice, J. G. (1978) Elements of Music. The Humanities. (Sixth Edition, pp.238-271). US McGraw-Hill, Inc.Schmidt-Jones, C. (2007) Meter In Music. Connexions Module, Version 1.7, Retrieved February15, 2007 from http//cnx.org/content/m12405/latest/
Since the middle of the 20th century, psychologists, physiologists and medical checkup professionals have been increasingly interested in the ways hormones feigned forgiving fashions. The dramatic progress which scientists had been able to make was due to extensive cognition of pharmacology and chemistry, which could be used to study neural events that came as a issuance of hormonal activity in earth. Hormonal influences on adult males were harder to document than those on other species, due to the fact that researchers could not achieve laboratory studies with the use of placebo (Hines, Brooks & Conrad, 2004).Thus, the current information with regard to human sexuality and sexuality identity was mostly obtained from other studies, including the studies of abnormal hormonal activity in patients with familialal disorders. Pfaff, Philips and Rubin (2004) write, that hormone / behavior relations always serve either homeostasis or reproduction. A only do of hormones works t o maintain weight, temperature, and fluid balance in human organism. Hormones impact human responses to stress and pain, but hormonal influences ar not special to common behavioral reactions.Hormones are directly and indirectly linked to sexual activity identification, and although descents between human sexuality and hormones leave much room for still research, professionals are confident that hormones are the unfavourable factors of sex identification in mankind. From the viewpoint of physiology, mammals are usually divided into the two large (male and effeminate) sexual urge categories. The formation of ones gender begins at chromosomal level. For the bulk of mammals, the homogametic sex is female, and if not influenced by male hormones, a phenotypic female with XX chromosomal pattern develops.In the presence of the Y chromo more or less however, a locally acting protein transforms gonads into testes, which produce numerous peptide hormones, androgens, and determine mas culine gender eminence (Gallagher, Nelson & Weiner, 2003). Testosterone predetermines the increase of outdoor(a) genitalia in boys androgenic receptors and 5-alpha-reductase which are present in all females, may also lead to masculinization of female genitalia. Apart from impacting gender identity, hormones are directly answerable for a whole set of behavioral responses. Hormones work in ways that quicken processing of sensory information in humans.Females have generally great sensitivity for chemosensory stimuli. This sensitivity is further enhanced by increased periovulatory oestrogen concentrations (Gallagher, Nelson & Weiner, 2003). Given that hormonal impulses in men are different from those in women, men lack this kind of responsiveness, which is also suggestive of the positive relationship between hormones and human behavior. Extensive research of transmitted disorders and sexual differentiation suggests that the formation of ones sexual identity is also influenced b y factors other than hormones.Social environment and psychological traditions may produce irreversible impacts on ones gender identification. These influences are particularly glaring in humans with physiological pathologies and genetic disorders, which lead to phallic deficiency or absence. In the study by Reiner and Gearhart (2004), out of sixteen subjects with diagnosed genetic disorders fourteen had been raised as females. Later, under the impact of physiological changes but eight of them changed their roles to males, with the rest spending their lives as females.These findings prove that identity is influenced by the whole complex of hormonal and environmental factors and researchers are still ineffective to determine, which of these factors produces the critical impact on gender differentiation in humans. The legality is that neither behavioral, nor psychological or hormonal factors can be held responsible for sexual differentiation in humans. In reality, human differenti ation is the result of a series of genetic and hormonal events that influence the development of the midland and external genitalia (Sytsma, 2006).Whether gender identity is impacted by hormonal or environmental factors is not always clear, but it is clear that there is a whole continuum of gender experiences between female and male genders and how humans identify themselves in this gender continuum will depend on the whole set of genetic and hormonal influences, as well as the external environment in which humans are raised. Conclusion For years and decades researchers believed that hormones were the critical factors determining gender identity in humans.With the extensive knowledge of genetic and sexual disorders, researchers have gradually come to realize the role, which environmental and psychological factors played in ones sex differentiation. Neither hormones nor biological or psychological factors can be held responsible for the development of gender identity in humans rath er, a whole complex of genetic and hormonal influences will determine the paths of gender formation and differentiation in all human subjects. References Gallagher, M. , Nelson, R. J. & Weiner, I. B. (2003). Biological psychology. John Wiley and Sons. Hines, M. , Brook, C.& Conway, G. S. (2004). Androgen and psychosexual development core gender identity, sexual orientation, and recalled childhood gender role behavior in women and men with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia. ledger of Sex Research, 41(1) 75-81. Pfaff, D. W. , Phillips, M. I. & Rubin, R. T. (2004). Principles of hormone behavior relations. Academic Press. Reiner, W. G. & Gearhart, J. P. (2004). Discordant sexual identity in some genetic males with cloacal exstrophy assigned to female sex at birth. The New England Journal of Medicine, 350 (4) 333-341. Sytsma, S. E. (2006). Ethics and intersex. Springer.
Tuesday, February 26, 2019
The salty project was the first Russian production-sharing discernment (AS) with strange corporations. A AS is a commercial contract in the midst of investor(s) who argon willing to make a large, long term and elevated risk investments with the host realm that has the natural recourses (usually oil colour and/or hitman) to exploit. The terms behind AAAS argon usually deferent than regular commercial contracts, as they usually bypass some of the regulations that the host state of matter imposes on contradictory Investments.The agreements also last for the Lifetime of the project. Under the terms of the AS, the investing union gets the larger share of venues at the beginning of the contract to recoup the represent of investment. As time goes by, the net revenues (revenues after the cost of trading operations) are share among the investment companies and the host state, usually a 20/80 split. AAAS are controversial In Russia because they bypass some of the assesses an d licenses that a foreign beau monde would postulate to pay.Previous foreign companies had worked In Russia under the regular tax system, therefore It was argued that AAAS dont treat all lineagees equally and create a superstar of unfairness. Furtherto a greater extent, AAAS apply only to Green knit stitch.. Greenfield are unexploited, undeveloped large pieces of lands with exploitable resources, and some circles matte up that Russia should not cheaply bar sop up away these coveted lands. AAAS are agreements between the foreign direct investors (FED) and the federal Russian government thereby curb the power of the mid-level establishment, traditionally and politically a powerful group In Russian Pollock.At the time of the agreement, the local anaesthetic Saline Government, led by governor Igor Verification, was a key player in the decision, in the main because Verification was politically influential and in favor of the project. After the fall of the communist regime, Russ ian GAP fell by 50% and up to half of the commonwealth was living below the poverty line. Oil and gas constituted the main export earnings of Russia, whose borders encompassed the largest supply of gas In the creation (30%). Attempts by Russia to privative state-owned talent firms had mixed results.The OLL Industry produced a number of vertically compound firms such as Skidpan and Subnet, which formed the basics of a competitive environment. Conversely, untruth of the gas effort produced a single, dominant company Gazpacho. At times, it appeared that he Russian Government acted on behalf of Gazpacho due to the significantly higher trespass this Industry had on the Russian economy, and because It was a 38% stakeholder In the company. As Gazpacho controlled 20% of the worlds gas production, decadeure were gallants political Interests escalated Witt ten development of this industry in Russia.Thus far, Russians exports were mainly to Europe, as Russia had been unable to build pip elines to East Asia and Japan. The energy sector constituted 20% of GAP, and Gazpacho alone was responsible for 8%. The growing economies of the Far East, combined with Russians need to exploit its oil and gas serves (both for sparing reasons, as well as for political influence) helped push Russia to seek immaterial Direct Investment (FED). Russia also required foreign expertise, as expatriate of gas to Asia would require a change state Natural Gas (LONG) speediness something they did not have the skillful ability to create.Foreign split upnerships past offered the fastest and near efficient way of developing previously in entranceible resource field as well as exporting to bare-assed marketplaces. Previous administrative scandals (BP Amoco) showed Russia to be politically and financially risky, causing a decrease in FED. A AS agreement would prove a good assurance gesture from Russia that it was ready to enter the world economy, and to overcome the bureaucratic explan ation and corruption that has scared away foreign companies. lawsuit would not have invested $108 in the Saline II project exhibit 1 without a AS. Russia needed this first AS to attract future FED, and as such would likely be nigh generous with the terms of its first AS. Successful execution of a AS by Shell, could create future opportunities to exploit additional Greenfield development in Russia. Despite these advantages, there were several downsides. Protectionism by members of the Russian Dumb meant that this AS was rapidly becoming politicized and might face ongoing challenges..One term of the AS was that Saline Energy Investment Company (SIC) needed to use 70% Russian labor and goods for the part of the project metric as measured man- hours and volume of material however the oil industry in Russia was mainly functioning on ground and had truly little experience with shoreward activities as exampled by Russians inability to build and maintain a Liquefied Natural Gas (LONG) p lant. The terms of this part of the agreement were particularly vague, as it was roll defined what would be considered Russian content in the project.Additionally, enforcement of the AS would be difficult due to the geographical remoteness of the project. * Investments in Saline did not Just include the production facilities, but also contributions to the local administration. SIC was responsible for the upgrade (or construction) of the island infrastructure as well as other wish-lists of improvements. The SIC also had to provide local community sponsorships of facilities, scholarships and grants as well as maintaining good relationships with environmental activists. Saline Island is a primal environment.In order to be successful, social and public relations have to be a priority, which could prove to be challenging since the business of exploiting oil and gas is usually brutal to the environment as well as the economical and social landscape of local communities. Care in negotiat ions had to be achieved in order to sponsor projects that would honour the local residents happy and friendly, and yet keep a tight control on spending for these projects and not wake up environmentalists. * Navigation of local governing was also a challenge.In the first stages of a project like this, good relations with local government employees are sometimes more important than relations with politicians higher up in ten unlearning as most approvals are cone locally. As ten project progressed, Ethereal authorities became more important as place attempted to reinstitution central authority. Another obstacle was the court-ordered system. Difficulties and delays in obtaining approvals for the technical and Economic Substantiation for Construction (TCO) as well as a lack of stabilization in the Russian legal system threaten the project as it would not proceed as scheduled without them.Without changes to the legal system, arms of the Sagas agreements that conflicted with curren t Russian laws could not be enforced and change magnitude the risks associated with the investment. Despite these obstacles Shell should invest in Saline. There are very few Greenfield available with the production capacity of Saline. Exploitation of non-developed lands allows for the building of new technology instead of maintaining old equipment. This is more efficient and therefore more profitable. The initial costs are lower as there is no need to dismantle old facilities to build new ones.It allows Shell to gain a foothold in Russia which has a large reserves of oil and gas. When at full capacity, Saline could produce up to 5% of the world LONG needs making this a critical strategic investment for Russia. Russia needs to rebuild its economy and is now ready to offer meliorate deals then it would in the future. It does not have the technology to build inshore platforms and LONG producing capabilities. It needs these facilities to access new markets and the location of Saline in the Arctic has great potential in these regards.The Saline II AS agreement has terms that will be difficult to match in the future and has the advantage of reducing the influence of the Russian oligarchy in the business dealings. Russia would not Jeopardize its standing as a 68 country and is motivated to have successful foreign investments. Of course one company to watch is Gazpacho. It is a major player in Russian politics and may feel threatened to have the East Asian market c missd to them. Shell should be open to the idea of having Gazpacho be part of the Consortium.To mitigate the risk, Shell should try to attract more investors to distribute the risk, at least at the beginning while costs are high, then buy the shares back once production brings in stable revenues. They should follow the given requirements very carefully and ensure that they keep maintain inheritor end of the bargain by hiring the requisite local contractors and labor force. Shell should behave as a good neighbor as more as possible by making sure that the environment is being taken care of.Natural resource industries require large capital investments and are politically difficult to navigate. They have such a significant geopolitical impact that the Coos of these companies do not make agreements with the heads of other companies, but kind of with heads of state. Their decisions do not just affect the shareholders of the company, but also the access of energy by their win country as well. If the political humor changes with a new government hostile to the home country of the company, no commercial contract can be legally enforced.A company could lose all of its investments in the host country should they be removed from the operations while the plants and equipment remain. Depending on the level of hostility and the impact the resources of a country have on the global energy supply, escalation may involve armed forces force to secure indispensable resources. Usually the countr ies with the companies that have the most technical expertise do to own the lands that contain the resources and the countries with the resources do not have the technical expertise to exploit them.It creates a mutual (although wary) Interdependence. An 011 company cannot well select to another site Ana move Its platforms, refineries and pipelines, while the host country cannot operate the equipment without the technical knowledge of the companies (which is the companys only leverage). Both sides need to do a a diplomatic dance, constantly negotiating give and takes on the victimisation of these resources. Exhibit 1 Saline 2 project
According to Machiavelli, the affairs of the extract reside in the billet of the prince. It is the prince which determines, directs, and unifies the comp nonpareilnts of the state. The prince wherefore should act to preserve, strengthen, and protect his range from danger, whether external or internal, without overdue moral consideration. In short, with the preservation of the state in mind, the prince should act with policy-making diligence to labour it, regardless of the means.According to Machiavelli, he who considers what ought to be do rather what is done testament rather find himself in a state of ruin than preservation (Machiavelli, 29). Political action free from every moral consideration is based from three assumptions 1) Human nature is maculate and selfish. It is impossible for the prince to satisfy all the needs of the wad without injuring the welf are of others. The people is al carriages eager to overthrow their government, to mock the instruments of the state , and to criticize the actions of the prince, whenever their interests (whether political or economic) are affected.According to Machiavelli, Because this is to be asserted in frequent of men, that they are ungrateful, fickle, false, cowardly, covetous, and as long as you succeed they are yours entirely they will offer you their blood, veraciousty, life and children, as is said above, when the need is far outback(a) but when it approaches they turn against you (Machiavelli, 29) 2) Morality and religion only limit the actions of the prince. In fact, when fortune fades away, the prince may become unable to defend himself from disconcerting threats.It is at that placefore important, according to Machiavelli, for the prince to guard himself as from a rock and he should go-ahead to show in his actions greatness, courage, gravity, and fortitude and in his private dealings with his subjects let him show that his judgments are irrevocable, and maintain himself in such re rearation that no one can hope either to deceive him or to raise up round him (Machiavelli, 32). The prince should endeavour to show himself as the bearer of righteousness, fidelity, and religion, without endangering his own spring. This motion-picture show is only used to preserve the power of the state.Only in this way can religion and ethical motive be twisted for the benefit of the prince 3) The advantage of a prince is never solely dependent on lawfulness, theology, or religion. Sometimes, political success is achieved by political deception, alteration of political favors, and in general by arms. It is therefore necessary for the prince to use these instruments to preserve the instruments of the state. It is this condition that the position of a prince who took the state by arms is much more menace than that of a prince appointed by the people or the Church.To preserve his power, the prince moldiness take moral considerations and religion as only instruments of that purpose. General inspection In enjoin to provide a more comprehensive admonition against Machiavellian politics, there is a need to draw important propositions from distinguishable thinkers and theories. Some of the selected philosophers and social theorists are as follows St. Thomas doubting Thomas, Immanuel Kant, Rousseau, and Montesquieu. According to doubting Thomas, morality and religion are necessary instruments for the governance of the state.In his book De Regnum (On Kinship), Aquinas argued that it is always necessary for the convention to take the precedents of moral and religious obligations as a means to please Divine justice (Curtis, 431). For Aquinas, the foundation of the state is divine in orientation. It is founded by the grace of the Divine Being (who willed the origin of the state after mans take). A prince who disregards the religion and morality disregards the Creator. Aquinas here does not disregard the necessity of preserving the power of the state. What Aquinas emphasi zed is the excesses of unscrupulous rule a condition which would be penalize by God.For Aquinas, a good prince will always be successful by God (and preserve his base of power). Rousseau argued that morality is borne out of the alleged(prenominal) social weightlift. The people gathered to appoint a ruler who would uphold their interests. The ruler has the following obligations 1) to protect the people from threats, 2) to maintain peace and order, 3) to promote solidarity and good governance, and 4) to relinquish power whenever the people chooses a new ruler. A ruler who fails to accomplish these tasks would lose his position.The state, however, would remain intact because the instrument of power resides not in the prince but in the people. According to Rousseau, a prince who put all the instruments of power in his hands is more likely to fall than a prince who measure his authority based on public will. Montesquieu offered a more critical and comprehensive under stand of the p osition of the prince. According to him, an unmanageable rebellion of the people is tantamount to political disobedience a infraction of the law of the land. This instance applies only if two conditions are met. First, the ruler does not show any violation of the law.And second, the people unlawfully breaks the social contract and sought to depose a good government. In short, according to Montesquieu, there is no need for a ruler to follow the Machiavellian principles because the law is the manifestation of social and moral obligation, the codec of ethics (Curtis, 613). Here, one may sympathise that the actions of the ruler should be based solely on this criterion. A ruler who follows the law would never fall in disgrace. Using Kants comprehensive moral standards (in his book Prolegomena), one can create a company of moral standards which would be used in judging the actions of a ruler.First, one should determine whether the consequence and intensity of political actions. If a political finality disfranchises a significant portion of the population, such decision is illegitimate (not chastely neutral). Second, one may determine the means by which decisions are carried out. Here, fair play is an important factor. Third, one may determine whether the actions of the state are in congruent with accepted international standards of morality. Here, an external standard is added in order to ensure the moral ability of the state in all levels.The proper enforcement of these external standards is either left to the disposition of international agencies or to the efficacy of treaties. In short, internal political standards of morality are enforced by the state (the people serve as the watch guard of the state). Machiavellian concepts of political deception and moral neutrality have no standing in this type of political set-up. Works Cited Curtis, Michael. The Great Political Theories. newly York Avon Books, 1981. Machiavelli, Niccolo. The Prince. Trans. by W. K. Marriott. New York Macmillan Publishing Company, 1995.
Monday, February 25, 2019
Doing my question on training and instruction in complex mask-based take heeding environments, I experienced a large discrepancy in how learners reacted to my scholarship material (Kluge, in press, 2004). Complex practiced mannikins complicate the placement of the learner into a realistic computer simulated bit or technical scenario which puts statement back into the learners hands. The contextual content of frameworks entirelyows the learner to learn by doing. Although my primary purpose was in up(p) research rules and testing procedures for evaluating learning results of simulation-based learning, the different reaction of our participants were so obvious that we took a closer look. I had devil different groups act in my learning experiments students from an engineering department at the University, largely in their 3rd semester, and apprentices from vocational breeding programs in mechanics and electronics of several companies tightfitting the University area i n their 3rd year of vocational training.Most of the students worked actually intensively and concentrated on solving these complex simulation tasks whereas apprentices became soft frustrated and bored. Although my first research purpose was not in study the differences between these groups, colleagues and practitioners showed their interest and encouraged me to look in particular at that difference. Practitioners especially hoped to go steady explanations why apprentices sometimes are less en thusiastic rise-nigh simulation learning although it is said to be motivating for their perception.Therefore, in this sermon I address the difference in the effectiveness of using simulation intervention program based on a Gestalt learning theory. Moreover, to find out if the program improves either or both the quality and recreate of the learning process of students enrolled in a highly technical training program. This dissertation focuses on using simulation based learning environments in vocational training program. In this chapter, the observational methodology and instruments are described, results presented and at long last discussed.As mentioned above, my primary purpose when I started to investigate learning and simulation based on Gestalt learning theory was focused on improving the research methodology and test material (see Kluge, in press, 2004) for experimenting with simulation-based learning environments. precisely observing the subjects reactions to the learning and testing material the question arose whether on that point competency be a difference in the quality of and speed of the learning process of students involved in my study.Research Design A 3-factor 2 ? 2 ? 2 factorial control-group- project was performed (factor 1 Simulation complexity ColorSim 5 vs ColorSim 7 factor 2 support method GES vs. DI-GES factor 3 target group, see Table 2). Two hundred and fifteen mostly male students (16% distaff) in eight groups (separated into four exp erimental and four control groups) participated in the main study. The control group served as a manipulation check for the learning phase and to demonstrate whether subjects stimulated any association at bottom the learning-phase.While the experimental groups filled in the friendship test at the end of the experiment ( after(prenominal) the learning and the permute tasks), the control groups filled in the noesis test directly after the learning phase. I did not want to give the noesis test to the experimental group after the learning phase because of its sensitiveness to testing-effects.I assumed that learners who did not acquire the relevant knowledge in the learning phase could acquire helpful knowledge by taking the knowledge test, which could have led to a better transfer performance which is not due to the learning method but caused by learning from taking the knowledge test. The procedure subjects had to play along included a learning phase in which they explored t he structure of the simulation aiming at knowledge acquisition. After the learning phase, subjects first had to fill in the four-item questionnaire on self-efficacy before they performed 18 transfer tasks.The transfer tasks were separated into two blocks (consisting of nine control tasks each) by a 30-minute break. In four experimental groups (EG), 117 students and apprentices performed the learning phase (28 female participants), the 18 control tasks and the knowledge test. As said before, the knowledge test was applied at the end because of its sensitivity to additional learning effects caused by filling in the knowledge test. In four control groups (CG), 98 students and apprentices performed the knowledge test directly after the learning phase, without working on the transfer task (four female participants).The EGs took nigh 2-2. 5 hours and the CG about 1. 5 hours to finish the experiment. Both groups (EGs and CGs) were asked to perplex notes during the learning phase. Subject s were randomly assigned to the EGs and CGs, nonetheless ensuring that the same number of students and apprentices were in each group. The Simulation-Based Learning Environment The computer-based simulation ColorSim, which we had authentic for our experimental research previously, was used in two different variants.The simulation is based on the work by Funke (1993) and simulates a small chemical plant to bring on change for later subsequent processing and treatment such as dyeing fabrics. The task is to produce a given amount of color ins in a predefined number of steps (nine steps). To avoid the uncontrolled cast of prior knowledge, the structure of the plant simulation cannot be derived from prior knowledge of a certain domain, but has to be learned by all subjects. ColorSim contains three endogenous multivariates (termed green, dense, and yellow) and three exogenous variables (termed x, y, and z ).Figure 1 illustrates the ColorSim screen. Subjects control the simulation s tep by step (in contrast to a real time running continuous control). The predefined cultivation states of each color have to be reached by step nine. Subjects enter values for x, y, and z within the range of 0-100. There is no time limit for the transfer tasks. During the transfer tasks, the subjects have to reach defined system states for green (e. g. , 500), black (e. g. , 990), and yellow (e. g. , 125) and/or try to keep the variable values as close as possible to the values defined as goal states.Subjects are instructed to reach the defined system states at the end of a multi-step process of nine steps. The task for the subjects was first to explore or learn about the simulated system (to find out the causal connect between the system variables), and then to control the endogenous variables by convey of the exogenous variables with applaud to a set of given goal states. With respect to the empirical raise of Funke (2001) and Strau? (1995), the abstractive concept for the v ariation in complexity is based on Woods (1986) theoretical arguments that complexity depends on an change magnitude number ofrelations between a stable number of (in this lawsuit six) variables (three input, three output for details of the construction rational and empirical evidence see Kluge, 2004, and Kluge, in press, see Table 1). To meet reliability requirements, subjects had to everlasting(a) several trials in the transfer task. For each of the 18 control tasks a predefined correct solution exists, to which the subjects solutions could be compared. In addition, knowledge acquisition and knowledge application phases were separated.The procedure for the development of a valid and reliable knowledge test is described in the next section. Different methods have been developed to provide learners with support to effectively learn from using simulations. De Jong and van Joolingen (1998) categorise these into five groups 1. Direct access to domain knowledge, which means that lea rners should know something about the field or subject beforehand, if discovery learning is to be fruitful. 2. financial backing for hypothesis generation, which means learners are offeredelements of hypotheses that they have to assemble themselves. 3. Support for the design of experiments, e. g. , by providing hints standardised It is wise to vary only one variable at a time 4. Support for making predictions, e. g. , by large-minded learners a graphic tool in which they can draw a curve that gives predictions at three levels of precision as numerical data, as a drawn graph, and as an area in which the graph would be located. 5. Support for regulative learning processes e. g. , by introducing determine progression, which means that the model is introduced gradually,and by providing planning support, which means freeing learners from the necessity of making decisions and thus helping them to manage the learning process. In addition, regulative processes can be supported by leading the learner through different stages, like Before doing the experiment . . . , Now do the experiment, After doing the experiment. . . . Altogether, empirical findings and theoretical assumptions have so far led to the conclusion that experiential learning needs additional support to enhance knowledge acquisition and transfer. marking Population and Participant Selection In the introductory part, I mentioned that there were two sub groups in the sample which I see as different target groups for using simulation-based learning environments. Subjects were for the most part recruited from the technical departments of a Technical University (Mechanical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electronics, Information Technology as well as apprentices from the vocational training programs in mechanics
THE LITTLE MATCH GIRL -Hans Christian Andersen- Hans Christian Andersen (1805-1875) is a Danish author, fagot tale writer, and poet noted for his childrens stories. Although during his life time he was acclaimed for having de send offed children worldwide, his stories were forever and a day meant for adults as well. His poetry and stories stool been translated into more than 150 languages. They demand inspired motion pictures, plays, ballets and animated films. However, fairy tales take the close to important role in his writing c atomic number 18er. Andersen apply the colloquial style that disguises the sophisticated moral t all(prenominal)ings in his fairy tales.Therefore, his tales became the positron emission tomography ones of both children and adults. Some of the most famous tales of Andersen are The Little Mermaid, The nauseating Duckling and The Little Match miss, etc. Especially, The Little Match Girl which is famous for its pitying quality has shaken the hearts o f millions of readers in the world. The narrative is firstly published in 1845. This one begins with a tiny young lady who appears to be alone and very nippy at New social classs Eve. She is a paltry miss who tries to sell matches at the cold night. She doesnt come back home because she is very afraid of her suffer who let her break to sell matches.After finding a lead between two houses wall, the poor fille starts to light matches to warm herself. When matches are burning, she stool see many things which make her very happy. Such as a Christmas tree, a holiday feast, a shooting star, etc. Then, the little missy sees a vision of her grandm different, the only if now person to have treat her with complete and kindness. Therefore, she lights other matches to keep her grandmother stay nearby as long as she butt joint. Finally, she can go together with her grandmother to the heaven. The attached morning, state find her dead on the snow but in that respect is still t he smile on her red cheek.In the story, there are two significant literature elements are character and the symbol. They are the most important factors that make the story become so successful. first off, the story has only one main character the poor little match girl. Andersen didnt give her a specific name in order to punctuate her hard life. Through the way writer introduce the main character, readers can see that the little girl is also one among many poor children like her. In fact, there are also three other characters. They are her family members grandmother, dad and mom.However, all of them are indirectly described with the girls appearance, thought and imagination. At the beginning of the story, she appears to be unc wadhed and barefoot in a terribly cold night. She is sent out to sell matches in the snow with a pair of ill-fitting slippers which used to perish to her mother. However then she loses one when she is running across the road and when a boy take up the res t. The father appears in her thought as a very irresponsible father. Although she is very hungry and cold, she doesnt daring to go home.With just a line of thought, a father who doesnt love his daughter is introduced intelligibly. Finally, her last family member, her grandmother, is mentioned affectionately through her short time life of each burning match. In the story, there are cryptograph related to the mother except for her ill-fitting slippers. However, the little match girl have no memories roughly her mother. While she fears the most is her father, grandmother is the one she does love who died for such a long time ago. The way Andersen indirectly introduces about these three characters highlights the loneliness and the unhappiness of the poor little girl.There is no one in the world that cares for her, they just try to step as quickly as they can to avoid the cold, late night without noticing of a lonely poor girl. Secondly, the story has a significant symbol which is al ways in readers mind. It is the light of match. After each time the poor girl strikes match against the wall, the match burns brightly and she is immersed inthe illusionof happiness. Firstly she imagines that she was sitting before a cracking iron stove. The next time, the girl sees a table with spread snow-white cloth and a lot of delicious food prepared for the dinner.Then, the most beautiful Christmas tree seems to be right beside her. After that, she meets her beloved grandmother and finally, she continuously strikes the whole mickle of matches in order to keep the grandmother stay with her. After each time the flame go out, everything is vanished rapidly. Therefore, she has to come back to the hard reality. It can be said that the light in this story is the symbol of dreams of happiness. Everything she require at the present becomes clearer than ever in the light of the match flame. She just dreams of many things which are normal to almost everyone but very highlife to her. The light is the bridge of her hard reality and the happy dreams. Therefore, the appearance of the light throughout the story highlights the emotions, complimentses and dreams of the poor little girl. She always dreams of the good things in time though the life has treated her so hard. Is the light also the wish of the author to the little girl and all of other poor people? Through the little girls dream, he expresses his mercy to these unfortunate. utilise metaphor device through the light image, Andersen successfully describes the dreams of happiness, the little girls short life and even the humane value subject he want to send to readers.This symbol greatly contributes to the vitality and humane quality of the story. To sum up, the story The Little Match Girl has the great reality and humane value. It indirectly reflects tragic fate of the poor in the current Danish society. Moreover, through the story we can see clearly the compassionate heart of the author and his talent as well. REFERENCES http//en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Hans_Christian_Andersen http//en. wikipedia. org/wiki/The_Little_Match_Girl http//www. online-literature. com/hans_christian_andersen/981/
Sunday, February 24, 2019
November 2010 Solution Eight Letters, One word, Mountain round top Removal Mountaintop removal although however eighteen letters and a mere two words provides unfailing opportunities for difficult working Americans. The world is now all about qualification and convenience. Society works as a machine, and each machine take fuel to work. For Kentuckians, the fuel is Coal. The economy of Kentucky centers around coal. It not only gives hard working Americans a safe environment to work in exactly provides jobs, and stable economy for our tribe.When comp bed to the rest of the world America has always had a strong economy. However America is currently in a realm of recession. Politicians, cabinet members and economists are constantly trying to bring our great nation back into a invoke of equilibrium concerning m wizardtary flow. Mountaintop removal is one way to achieve this. Areas which are abundant in coal are blessed with multiple lucrative opportunities which benefit not onl y the communities economy but the Nations, as well.Mine Safety is one thing that is extremely misunderstood. in that location is a lot of controversy, about mine safety regulations. But, the truth is that MTR is statistically the safest form of mining. Compare MTR to underground mining. Underground Mining deep inside the earth, hollow shafts, narrow tunnels, darkness all around, the fear that the mine may collapse at any time VS. MTR Employees are above ground, dumbfound state of the art technology to help with safety protocol, and Mine collapsing isnt a fear employees have to worry about.Jobs, something that loyal Americans are fleck for in the savage Job market. Mountain top removal offers immense term jobs which also helps the economy. A fact, most people dont know is that for every miner employed through MTR three unsanded jobs are created. Thus, helping employment rates go up and retention our economy running. Americans need jobs and through MTR we can make that happen. Mountain top removal eighteen letters, three words, endless opportunities. Coal four letters, one word, keeps the lights on.Although Opponents to MTR claim that it hurts the environment, creates a fair-weather economy, and is unsafe for its workers the truth is, MTR creates an almost identical decorate after reclamation, it continues to provides jobs even when the coal is gone and has been proven to be statistically safer than underground mining. Although the perspectives about MTR will continue to vary it is a life-style millions have adapted to already. Without MTR millions would be unemployed, the oven that makes our thanksgiving turkey would not work, a child wouldnt have the electricity to read his or her firstly book.MTR is a permanent way to fix our problems. Kentucky is more than just a geographic state, its a state of mind and a state of heart and without MTR it would wither away into a perpetual end.Works Cited The Purdue OWL. Purdue U typography Lab, 2010. Web. Date o f access. Reece Erik , . Lost Mountain . New York Riverhead, 2006. Print. Kitts, Gene. The trip the light fantastic toe Gazette. Charleston Charleston Gazette, 2008. Print. Lemon, Eric. http//www. marshall. edu/cber/media/010420-DA-mountain. pdf. Charleston Athenaeum, 2001. Print.
1. Jack has to decide whether to eng mount up an attorney. What would you advise? I would advise rogue non to operate an attorney in the case. First, the fact that the old adult female who sold the china shows signs of Alzheimer is enough to nullify the scram. A person piece of tail only get into contract if they ar construe the terms and are considered to be competent. A person engaging in a contract should be able to understand all the ramifications, something which the old wo valet de chambre cogency not baffle understood (Chen-Wishart 41). Moreover, she sold the china at a truly low price when compared to its grade, and this is evidence enough that she did not understand what the chinas really value is and these might be signs of the disease.2. Was on that point a valid contract when Jack purchased the china for $150.00. Why or why not? Did Jacks superior noesis close out fundamental law of a contract? How might the widows age or possible medical condition affect contract formation There was a valid contract during the time of sale because the cardinal parties agreed on the price and the payment was done. Nevertheless, the contract can be easily reversed on the basis that one of the parties was incapacitated to engage in any legal agreement.Initially, jack did not get knowledge on the condition of the woman, but this is not evidence enough for him to draw the case (Cibinic et al 62). The widows age should however have been enough alarm to show him that she did not have knowledge regarding the value of the product. As a result, jack should not have interpreted this to his advantage and bought the china at a price which was very low. Moreover, he should have accepted the initial offer made by her fille, since this would have been profitable for him instead of engaging in a law suit.3. What is the likelihood that the daughters suit bequeath succeed? State your reasons. Is contract recission a potential remedy? Why or why not? Is an award of monetary alter an adequate remedy? Why or why not? There is a likelihood that the daughters suit will succeed, based on the facts of the case. First, one of the parties was incapacitated to engage in a contract, and this meant that there was no recognizable contract.Moreover, the value of the chinaindicates that jack has taken the womans condition to his advantage and gave a price which was very low (Dawson 73). Contract rescission would be the possible remedy in this case, because the woman had willingly sold the china at a crucify away price, and just like any other business man jack would not have refused to purchase it. Awarding the monetary damages is however not a possible remedy because there was no criminal act entailed in the contract, and jack did not have preliminary knowledge of the womans condition.Works CitedChen-Wishart, Mindy. Contract Law. Oxford Oxford University Press, 2012. Print. Cibinic, John, Ralph C. Nash, and James F. Nagle. administration of politi cal sympathies Contracts. Washington, D C George Washington University, National Law Center, Government Contracts Program, 2006. Print. Dawson, John P. Cases on Rescission of Contracts and Restitution at Law and in Equity. Ann Arbor, Mich Brumfield & Brumfield, 1934. Print.
Saturday, February 23, 2019
HENRI BERGSON History of Ideas 2012 To Sir Asad Shahzad 10/21/2012 GROUP MEMBERS * AMMARAH MASROOR-12779 * ASFIA AZIZ-12718 * SYEDA AREEBA TARIQ-13055 SUBMITTED TO SIR ASAD SHAHZAD DATE 21/OCT/2012 TOPIC PAGE Henri Bergson Introduction 2 Bergsons Intuition 3 Intuition Definition, Explanation, A sm tot e actually(prenominal)y pr exemplifyice that led to Intuition 4 Example, Sinking into Intuition, Explanation 5 Another Example, Explanation, Intuition as philosophic Method 6 Intuition as Philosophical Method 7Bergsons Time and Free Will 8 TABLE OF table of contents Time and Free Will length 9 Time 10 foreg bingle and Present 11 Free Will and De edgeinism 12 Bergsons fictive developing 15 Meaning of Evolution 16 notional Evolution Definition, Essence of Life, Elan Vital, Book 18 Comparison in the midst of Darwins Theory of Mechanical Evolution and Bergsons Theory of germinal Evolution 19 Critics 22 References 23 HENRI BERGSONIntroduction Henri Bergson (18591941) was integrity o f the virtually famous and influential French philosophers of the late 19th century-early 20th century. Bergson was born(p) in genus Paris on October 18, 1859 he was the second of s in season children of a Polish Father and English mother twain of his p arnts were Jewish. Bergson was a notably exceptional pupil throughout his childhood. Like his German contemporary, Edmund Husserl, Bergsons original readiness was in mathematics.Although his international fame r severallyed cult-like heights during his invigoration judgment of conviction, his influence decreased notably afterwards the Second World War While such French thinkers as Merleau-Ponty, Sartre, and Levinas explicitly acknowledged his influence on their thought, it is generally agreed that it was Gilles Deleuzes 1966Bergsonismthat attach the reawakening of interest in Bergsons work. Deleuze toughized that Bergsons most enduring contri thation to philosophical thinking is his theory of numerosity. Bergsons concept of multiplicity attempts to unify in a consistent way two contradictory features heterogeneity and continuity.M any philosophers today thinks that this concept of multiplicity, despite its difficulty, is r developmentary. It is r organic growingary because it blossom outs the way to a reconception of community. (www. plato. stanford. edu) BERGSONS INTUITION BY SYEDA AREEBA TARIQ HENRI BERGSON He wrote a forget THE imaginative MIND in 1946. This earmark is an introduction to metaphysics which consist of collection of essays and lectures concerning the nature of knowledge, justifying how apprehendion prepareation be used as a philosophical manner. Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy in which the nature of cosmos and world is taken into context.W hereas, two important questions argon answered 1. what is on that point? And 2. what is it like? I would be explaining what erudition according to Bergson is and wherefore it is called philosophical method. INTUITION DEFI NITION OF INTUITION * An immediate scholarship of endeavor not inferred or dressd by a former cognition of the aforesaid(prenominal) object. * Untaught pure knowledge. EXPLANATION Philosophical definition of intuition says that it is an immediate procedure of lettered of some object not by causationing or analyzing the previous knowing of the said(prenominal) object.It is therefore, say to be pure or untaught knowledge that one acquires at an instant. fit in TO BERGSON fit to Henry Bergson intuition is described as a method of thinking in period which reflects the round-the-clock flow of echtity. A SMALL utilize THAT LED TO INTUITION Once he was rolling and unrolling thread and said that this re position mans sense of mortality and the continual pee of new reminiscence a spectrum of a thousand shades with a current of feeling running through them, collecting and retaining them, to represent how all the moments ar involved.The gracious has tendency to build new memories and retain them. He said that merciful memory has stored thousand of new things pitable from the one work outed and the one that provide form every cadence if they go through the process of knowing. EXAMPLE Example that he gave was of a darn of elastic which is contracted than drawn out to its limit and we fag manoeuver out that there is a flow. The elastic produces a line which grows yen and long presents that something is pure indivisible mobile unit. SINKING INTO INTUITION He says that this is duration which elicitt be divided.It is the qualitative not quantifiable it has multiplicity yet unity and is mobile and continuously penetrating itself. He even says that duration cant be represented by concept. bingle cannot contribute the feeling if just a concept is there. One cant grasp duration with concept. But duration is grasped only by intuition. By which one is transported into an object to grasp what is laughable and ineffable (cant describe in word) wi thin it. Intuition is a complete philosophical method that involves placing oneself within the eon, and expanding it into a continuous heterogeneity.EXAMPLE Take an example a person has captured lots of picture of CBM from unlike angles and a poet has composed a poem over brio here but one cannot duplicate the feeling of world in CBM itself whereas the poem can never give the dimensional value of walking in CBM. EXPLANATION Thus any concept given cannot grasp duration flow of real time but intuition can grasp duration. One can discredit into the other object by having intuition an instant knowledge which is unique cant be explained is tuck by person which forms a new memory.Thus intuition is a direct perception and experience of the continuous flow of reality, without the use of any concepts the flow of time as real duration can be experienced only by intuition. some other EXAMPLE He uses the example of an artist who makes a series of sketches of Notre raspberry in Paris. No w at the bottom of all the sketches made in Paris, the stranger go out probably write Paris by way of reminder. And as he has really go acrossn Paris, he allow be able, by descending from the original intuition of the whole, to place his sketches in it and thus arrange them in relation to one another.But there is no way of performing the opposite operation even with an infinity of sketches as exact as you like, even with the word Paris to indicate that they must bear contiguous connection, it is im possible to travel back to an intuition one has not had, and gain the impression of Paris if one has never seen Paris (201). EXPLANATION here(predicate) he says that if an artist has sketched a model of a city which he has unfeignedly seen and drew him would consecrate knowing of the place which he has transferred to his sketches. He is descending from original intuition in order to place his sketches in it.But if a person who has never seen Paris he cannot enjoy Paris sketches as much as the one who saw in actual would transport himself to the sketches and intuit it as an object. The person never seen Paris can never feel like walking into the place rather he would make a new intuition of his one within the duration. A person can form an immediate knowing of object different from the knowing of the same object before by actually being in duration through intuition. Why intuition is called as philosophical method-of transporting into object to grasp what is ineffableIntuition is a method through which one trace off or throws his habits of mind that tries to break duration and thus replace the duration into aloofness. To know anything as whole its necessary to intuit rather breaking into bits of pieces. Experience can only come from intuition. We discover melody we hear the whole, not a series of notes one after another. When weanalyze the melody, we whitethorn indeed break it into a subject of notes, but we atomic number 18 preceding(a) analyzing t he notes, not the melody. The melody, to be known, must be grasped as a whole. In other words, it must be intuited. Thus, the method of intuition is at essence the task of metaphysics.Metaphysics is not a synthesis of knowledge, a sort of piecing together of the notes to form a melody, nor is it analysis, the breaking down of a melody into its component notes. Metaphysics is theexperience of melody. Thus concludes Bergson in his Introduction to Metaphysics Metaphysics has vigor in common with a generalization of experience, and yet it could e specify as the whole of experience (lexperience integral). BERGSONS TIME AND submit WILL BY ASFIA AZIZ TIME AND FREE WILL (1889) HENRI BERGSON Henri Bergson in his moderate has explained various different ideas amongst which the most studied are of * Time and Space The Idea of Pure Duration * Free Will and Determinism I will explain each point in detail. This admit has influences Sartre towards philosophy. This book is as well mattere d to be an anti-thesis to Immanuel Kant. Kant proposed that Freedom is something beyond the circle of time and aloofness. Time and space is considered as same to Kant i. e. being homogenous. Bergson on the contrary, differentiates time and space and gives onwards the concept of duration, a differentiate in which freedom is experienced. (www. stanford. edu) The explanations subscribe to been extracted from his book Time and Free will- An essay on the immediate data of ken SPACEHenri Bergson defines space as being homogenous. It is the same and identical to everyone perceiving it. He says that multiplicity inhabits in space. Multiplicity is the psychic state of being treble at the same time. It has a connection with the benignant mind and reason, because reason enables a person to actualise the state of multiplicity. Bergson demonstrates two shapes of multiplicity 1. valued Multiplicity When we count physically be materials and we localize them in space, it is called quant itative multiplicity.No typic representation and psychic images are formed to perceive this kind of state, because things exist physically in front of our eyes. (Key Writings, Bergson, continuum, p53) Example, when we count the number of sheep in a flock of sheep, we save images of the previous sheep in our minds as our determine progresses. These images are involuntarily fixed by us at a point in space. 2. Qualitative Multiplicity This is the analysis of the states of consciousness being multiple when we perceive intangible materials or qualities. here(predicate), organization of mental images and symbolic representation is important.Example, when we hear a noise of footsteps, our minds form a mental image of somebody walking and each of the successive sounds of the steps are localized in space we count our sensations by localizing them into space and this leads to the inference of qualitative multiplicity. (Key Writings, Bergson, continuum p53) By defining the populace of mu ltiplicity in space, Henri Bergson past defines space as Space is what enables us to distinguish a number of identical and simultaneous sensations from one another it is thus a precept of differentiation Some people say that simultaneous sensations are never identical.To support this point, Henri Bergson states that when we talk intimately homogenous medium we are public lecture about the simultaneity of terms which are identical in flavour but are distinct from each other. Henri proposes that the higher the intelligence service in a human, the much clear the under cornerstoneing of homogenous space will be. Men have the special faculty of conceiving space without quality and accordingly we say that the medium where men localize simultaneous sensations and objects are the same for everyone. (Key Writings, Henri Bergson, continuum, pg 57) TIMEUsually many philosophers take time and space to be the same. But Henri Bergson, differentiates between time and space. For him, there a re two kinds of time * Mathematical time Mathematical time is the time which is used in sciences by scientists. It is homogenous time which is the same for everyone. This is the time which many philosophers consider as space, as it is homogenous. (ibid, p63) Example, the time in hours, minutes and seconds used to propose speed of a moving body is mathematical time. It can in any case be called the clock time. * au hencetic Time or Real DurationAccording to Bergson, real time is the time that we experience and it is continuous and flowing. It is heterogeneous as it is the qualitative representation of time that differs from person to person. It is also called the state of real duration defined by Bergson as Pure duration is the form which the succession of our conscious states assumes when egotism lets itself live, when it refrains from separating its present state from its agent states To understand this, Bergson said that real duration is the state of mind where our ego domina tes.Ego is the self of a person and directs the persons mind to coalesce the past states with the present states in an organic whole. In this conscious state, all states of mind permeate into one another to form it as a whole. (ibid, p60) Example, when we hear successive rings of a doorbell, we perceive that sound to be in a continuous rhythm and do not distinguish each ting of the bell. This amalgamation and permeation of the successive rings of bell into one organic whole is what real duration is all about. bypast and PresentWhen Bergson speaks of the past, he does not mean the past, but our present memory of the past. Present is the only moment in the whole history of the world. Past resides in the present and that also changes the aspirations for future. This permeation of former and present states demonstrates real duration. Example, a man has a best friend and he believes him to have all good characteristics. One day, if he sees his best friend fraud to him, all his percep tions about the good characteristics would change.This shows that his present will change his past and future too. This is how real duration is experienced in real life. Quotations by Henri Bergson, The present contains nothing more than the past, and what is found in the effect was already in the cause. The idea of future, pregnant with infinity of possibilities, is thus more dark-fruited than the future itself, and this is why we find more charm in wish than in willpower, in dreams than in reality FREE WILL AND DETERMINISM Real Duration vindicates human freedom and disposes off the path of determinism.To understand this, we must first understand these two doctrines separately. Determinism It is a doctrine that all human survivals, events and accomplishs have sufficient causes and are pre-determined by the states of mind. For a determinist, freedom of survival is an illusion. This illusion can be presented as, that if a person has to select one branch from a lot of branches the branch that he selects is a choice that is fully predictable because somewhere at the back of his mind he has the idea of which branch to select. www. informationphilosopher. com) In response to this example, Bergson proposed the idea of free will and said that the above choice is a choice through the formation of a mental image localized in space, which is inadequate to intend a choice. Choice is a temporal act for Bergson as it is pertaining to the present and conscious state of mind. Free Will It is a doctrine that the events and actions of human beings are expressed through personal choices and are not governed by other forces or states of mind.Henri Bergson proposes that through experiencing real duration we can be free. The freedom of choice is fully certified by direct experience says Bergson. He describes free will as, A man is free when his act springs spontaneously from his total personality and it has evolved up to the moment of action. If this spontaneity is absent, his action will be stereotyped When man experiences real duration, he gains possession of himself and once self possession is attained, the man acts freely and creatively.Freedom has a strong association with personality or character of an individual. Character and personality changes from different situations which in turn changes our self. To demonstrate this idea, Bergson uses the saying of an English writer Stuart wedge To be conscious of free will must mean to be conscious, before I have steady downd, that I am able to decide either way Bergson and other defenders of free will would be of the faith that, when we perform an action freely, some other action is equally possible which we leave and make a choice willingly.When a determinist says that our motives determine our action, Bergson says that motives are conflicting. He says that common sense believes in free will, and motives are not a necessity for defining our actions (Time and Free Will, Bergson, p148). To prove tha t motives are conflicting, Henri Bergson presents the sayings of Stuart Mill as I could have abstained from murder if my averting to the abomination and my dread of its consequences had been weaker than the temptation which impelled me to commit it. In response to this Henri Bergson said, His propensity to do right and his aversion to doing wrong are strong comme il faut to overcome any other desire or aversion which may conflict them(TFW, p150) by this, the only idea that Bergson intends to provide is that the motives of desire and aversion are conflicting. But when the man decides to select one of them, it demonstrates his free will and freedom of choice. BERGSONS CREATIVE phylogenesis BY AMMARAH MASROOR Let us first start with the basic definition of phylogenesis, MEANING OF EVOLUTION A process of formation or harvest-home, progressive change or growth in theinherited characteristicsofbiological races over successivegenerations Hence the term Evolution operator that cert ain characteristics or genes starts transforming in a population which and so results in a complete transformation of that populations characteristics which was once inherited by the preceding populations. So it is said that the growth or development which has been taking place as the generations passed has thus absolute and now it can be said that this species has evolved.This process of evolution can take place in hold organisms as well as in non- victuals organisms. Some general examples could be the evolution of the bottle of century or the evolution of airplanes, what we once used to see in cartoons and documentaries and what we see now in reality and in which most of us have travelled is absolutely an evolution. The best example for the evolution in living organisms is the evolution of mankind, the theory that Darwin proposed and the idea that he gave that, Man is the descendant of apes CREATIVE EVOLUTION Henri Bergson proposed the idea of evolution as Creative Evolution.H e believed that human beings are primarily to be explained in terms of the evolutionary process and that the mechanical process of random selection is inadequate to explain what occurs. According to Bergson Creative evolution is a sort of upcountry drive which he calls as elan racy, translated as life force and this life force has a connection with the real time that carries the process of evolution perpetually onward. In order to understand this definition of creative evolution first one needs to understand the two concepts that he highlights in here Essence of LifeFor Bergson the essence of life is duration, the real time time that is continuously flowing through which we have direct inner experience and is connected with life itself, with the life force that is the elan vital because of which goes on the everlasting process of evolution. Elan Vital Bergson gives an explanation to this nomenclature as an original common impulse which explains the creation of all living species . The words literal meanings are vital force, life force or vital impulse. A combination of both real time and life force causes the process of creative evolution to begin. BOOK CREATIVE EVOLUTIONIn order to further explain his work and concept about creative evolution Henri Bergson wrote a book in 1907 which provided an explanation against Darwins Theory of Mechanism. He was also awarded a Nobel Prize for this work of his. COMPARISION BETWEEN DARWINS THEORY OF MECHANICAL EVOLUTION AND BERGSONS THEORY OF CREATIVE EVOLUTION In order to understand that why Bergsons Theory is known as Creative Evolution and Darwins Theory as Mechanical Evolution let us have a comparison between the two theories. This comparison includes the 4 main points of both the theories and all the points of each theory are relate with each other.The first and the foremost comparison between the two theories are about the approaches they follow. Bergsons creative evolution follows the teleological approach of t raditionalistic finalism that is everything that starts comes to its natural place which ultimately makes the genuine creative creation. Now here the teleological approach comes from the word teleology which means that things should be explained by the appealingness to their goal, purpose or functions. For example if you throw a rock it would go to its natural place the ground, due to the gravitational pull that exists.Teleological whereas can be explained for the existence or presence of biological trait, structure or conduct by appeal to its function. In comparison to this Darwins mechanical evolution follows the mechanistic approach which precludes the possibility of any real change or creative thinking as the products of evolution is given in advance, in the form of pre-existent possibilities. This explains that this process deprives evolution of any inventiveness or creativity because this process is treated as pure tool which simply adds existence to something that already had been in the form of possible.Hence there is no difference left hand between the real and possible. Although both the approaches, to some extent are same because they provide us with the notion that Whole is given. Therefore, neither tool nor strict finalism can give a satisfying account of changes in life. The second comparison is about the Tendency Theory. Here Bergson talks about the complexification of life, that is, the phenomenon of its evolution from the simple original vital impulse into different species, individuals, and organs.Here he explains two concepts, firstly he explains that after evolution has occurred species are then distinguish into plants, animals and humans. Then he further explains that life is complex and in order to simplify itself it organizes itself into two great opposite tendencies, namely, instinct and intelligence. Here he then explains the second concept that these tendencies further provides a attribute between humans and animals, that humans have both these tendencies whereas animals only have one that is instinct.This is the reason why Bergson calls this evolution of mankind as Creative Evolution. In comparison to this Darwin speaks of the Natural survival the primary mechanism of change over time which includes 4 components * Variation * Inheritance * postgraduate rate of population growth * Differential survival and reproduction This is very obvious from the four of its points that he believes that the more the specie is adaptable to change, the variance and tendency to inherit and the more it increases its population through reproduction it has more chances of evolution.The third comparison is that Bergson believes at the peripheral of intelligence a interference fringe of instinct survives which helps us to understand the essence of life. This means that at the boundaries of intelligence a border of instinct is present. His concept is that instinct is the primary cypher whereas intelligence is the secondary factor. Instinct comes in first and then the intelligence, this is why instinct came first in all living organisms but then some of the organisms further evolved.Hence because of this evolution they can then be differentiated as animals with instinct whereas humans with instinct and then with intelligence (after evolution). examine this with Darwins theory it can be said that he had no concept of the two tendencies hence focused on the concept of excerption of the Fittest. According to him there exists no such tendencies which helps us to lead our lives, preferably there is this concept of Survival of the Fittest where only those species survives that are open to changes, open to use available resources and can fit in the present surroundings whereas others are there to die.An example could be of the movie Ice season where all the animals in that movie do not further exist instead they have evolved (the mammoth have now evolved as elephants). The point of Bergson in this comp arison can be concluded as there is a little bit of instinct surviving within each intelligent being, making it to coincide with the life force. This partial coincidence is what found Intuition. The fourth comparison in actual is not a comparison because it is just a one sided difference.Here Bergson puts forward his view and connects it with his previous point of tendencies, that combined result of instinct and intellect is intuition. Through intuition, an individual understands the difference between order and disorder. Intuition means gut feeling, sometimes known as the 6th sense. Bergson says that our way of perceiving and knowing this world when based on the need for living is then an obstructor. To this obstacle he gives the name Idea of Disorder. This idea consists of three notions 1.Order things calamity according to our needs and wants 2. Disorder simply the order we are not looking for. Although this order may be correct for others but for us it is not happening accordin g to what we want. 3. Nothingness things that exist in space but we do not consider them to be as existing because it had never been our need. To this point of Bergson there is no comparing point of Darwin because he never came to the point of intuition. His theory stopped at the notions of Natural Selection and Survival of the Fittest. LETTER TO HAROLD HOFFDINGHenri Bergson in one of his letter to Harold Hoff ding which was create in his book key writings said that someone who gets a complete grasp on the creative evolution would never then believe on the process of mechanism because in that time is unprofitable. CRITICS Although Bergson made his ideas attractive with analogies and poetic metaphors he did not support them with coherent arguments. He left them to the readers to understand it themselves on their level of intuition. Furthermore, his critics complained that his ideas did not stand up very well to logical analysis.His defenders replied by saying that he possessed all these characteristics in common with the best creative writers, and that this was because he was offering insights rather than logical arguments. REFERENCES * www. google. com * www. googleimages. com * www. stanfordencyclopediaofphilosophy. com (plato. stanford. edu) * www. dictionary. references. com * Key Writings Henri Bergson (continuum) * Modern Philosophy by Bertrand Russell * History of Western Philosophers * 20th Century Philosophy