Saturday, August 31, 2019

Clostridium Difficile (C.diff)

Clostridium Difficle is a nosocomial infection acquired mostly in hospitals. In 2005 it was consider the most precarious infection to bombard North American in a decade. Armed with knowledge about the infection, transmission, environmental factors, alternative treatments, prevention and ways to control C. diff healthcare workers can better be prepared to help fight the spread of this deadly infection. A C. Diff, its transmission and environmental factors C. diff is a gram –positive, anaerobic, spore forming bacteria. It colonizes the intestinal tract of those infected after normal intestinal flora has been disrupted by antibiotic therapy. Diagnosis of C. diff is based on clinical symptoms supported by endoscopic finding or stool testing for the presence of the pathogens or toxins. Patients that has taken antibiotics within the past 3 months or a patient that has diarrhea 72 hours after hospitalization should be tested. ELISA is the test used to diagnosis C. diff. It checks for the toxin A or B or both. C. diff incubation period is 1 to 2 weeks. Asymptomatic carriage can range from severe diarrhea, pseudo membranous colitis, toxic mega colon, intestinal perforation, and death from secondary sepsis. C. diff toxin founded in stool ranges from 1% to 2% in normal population to 10% in hospital inpatients and up to 85% to 90% in patients with proven AAPMC. Some risk factors for C. diff includes being over the age of 65, patients who are immunocompromised, gastrointestinal surgery and procedures, gastrointestinal stimulants, antiperistaltic drugs and proton pump inhibitors. The transmission of C. diff can be transmitted by another patient. The transmission can be via commodes, thermometers, bedside tables, floors, and other objects in rooms used by a patient with C. diff. It can also be transmitted from the hands of healthcare workers. That’s why it’s important for healthcare workers to use proper hand hygiene techqines. Healthcare workers must wash hands with soap and water because antiseptic hand santaniers doesn’t destroy C. diff. Environmental factors also play a huge part in the transmission of C. diff. Healthcare professions should know the proper environmental disinfectants to use. Housekeeping staff should ensure proper cleaning and disinfection of equipment and the environment. Patient’s rooms should be properly cleaned at least once a day with proper equipment for isolation rooms. In order to stop the transmission of C. diff all departments must work together to secure that C. diff transmission isn’t constantly transmitted to other patients. Treatments C. diff will usually clear in 20% to 25% of patients with mild infection and the discontinuation of precipitating antibiotic. When patients have moderate to severe diarrhea or colitis oral metronidazole is a treatment used for 10-14 days at a total of three times a day. Metronidazole achievement rate is usually 95% effective. Vancomycin is also used for 10-14 days at a total of four times a day. Vancomycin sometimes promote emergence of VRE (vancomycin-resistant enterococci). If a patient develops fulminant colitis admittance to ICU is necessary and an emergency colectomy is performed because of severe ileus or impending perforation. Mortality rate is 30% to 80% if surgery is performed. Prevention. Prevention of C. diff starts with avoiding the use of antibiotics that are associated with high rates of C. diff. Healthcare staff, housekeeping, dietary, and maintenance should be informed on the transmission and precautions of C. diff. When C. diff is suspected or verified patient should be place in isolation. The proper precautions should be placed on the door of the resident and visitors should be directed to nursing station before admittance into the room of a person with C. diff. Healthcare workers should drape with gowns and gloves for all contact to prevent the spreading of C. iff. Proper handing washing should be done with hand soap and water because sanitizer with alcohol doesn’t help in the fight against C. diff. Patient care equipment should remain in the room throughout isolation. Patient rooms and equipment should be cleaned with bleach, alkaline gluteraldehyde, or ethylene oxide. Always remember never to mix different solutions because this can cause toxic vapors. All rooms should be terminal cleaned once patient is discharged to prevent further spreading of C. diff. Health Promotion and Wellness Strategy. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention has tool kits for healthcare professional. CDC offers up-to-date information, recommended infection control measures, and tools for outbreak response coordination and reporting. CDC also has resources on how to implement and improve antibiotic stewardship efforts. To sum it up all educating healthcare professional on how to stop the transmission and prevention of C. diff can help stop the spreading of C. diff. Learning how to keep yourself as well as the patients free from C. diff can be controlled if everyone works together.

Personal Theory Paper Essay

Throughout my experience my current course, Theories and Practices: Human Services in Criminal Justice, I have learned plenty of information about the various theories of psychotherapy in counseling. Some of these theories operate on the basis of recognizing errors in thinking and correcting those errors. Other theories operate on the basis of multiculturalism and the fact that all clients are unique and deserve to be treated as such. As a result of learning from my readings and of my discussions with class mates, I was able to create my own intervention theory for counseling. Explanation of Theory and why I believe in it Any student in a human service course should be able to develop his or her own intervention theory by the time the course ends. My personal theory will involve both cognitive and multicultural approaches to therapy. Cognitive approaches to therapy operate on the assumption that by correcting the clients’ faulty beliefs, they can learn to behave more appropriately, how to think differently, and how to act on these learnings (Jones-Smith, 2012). On the other hand, Multicultural approaches to therapy suggest that counseling theories represent various views of the world with their own values, biases, and assumptions about human behavior, and that all clients are unique in some way and that their individual differences must be both accepted and respected (Jones-Smith, 2012). I believe in combining these approaches to therapy for my theory for a few reasons. First, I have always thought that offenders within the criminal justice system need to recognize their errors in thinking before they will be able to change their behaviors to be in accordance with the law. Plus, as a future employee of the criminal justice system who will most likely be working in human services, I need to be able to work with clients from various cultural backgrounds and  to accept and recognized their differences. Combining these two theories is the best way for me to be able to help all of my future potential clients in the best way possible. Theories and Theorists I Relate the Most to and why After reading all of the material for this course, I found that I relate to a few of the theories and theorist better than I do others. For instance, I found that I can relate to Albert Ellis and his Rational Emotive Behavior Theory or REBT. One of the reasons that I can relate to this theory and theorist is because it is a cognitive approach to therapy, which I think is very important for offenders to take part in for the best chances of living a crime-free life. Plus, REBT is based on the belief that people are born with a potential for irrational or rational thinking (Jones-Smith, 2012). In addition, REBT maintains that people are born constructivists and have a great deal of resources for human growth (Jones-Smith, 2012). I have always made these assumptions about people, which is also why I can relate to this theory. I can also relate to Ho’s theory of internalized culture, which suggests that the formations of our worldviews are influenced by eternalized culture (Jones-Smith, 2012). In addition, the theory suggests that effective multicultural counseling is based on the counselor’s ability to go beyond the boundaries and limitations of his or her personal culture (Jones-Smith, 2012). I can relate to this because I think that it is necessary to be able to look past my personal beliefs and experiences to be able to help a wide range of clients. Relating to these theories and theorists has helped me to develop my own personal intervention theory that I will be able to use in my future career. What Surprised me most about the Theories and why Some of the theories and concepts from this course took me by surprise. For instance, it took me by surprise that there are theories and theorists created specifically for feminist and the LGBT communities. Although I realize that all types of people have issues that they need to address in therapy, I never thought that specific therapeutic techniques were developed for feminist and LGBT communities. However, it does make sense that the LGBT community would have certain issues that other people may not have to face. In addition, I was a bit surprised at the variety of theories and  approaches that are used for Asians, Muslims, and Arabs. What surprised me about these theories is that they were very different from many of the theories generally used by our culture. In addition, I did not fully understand how the differences in these cultures played such a large role in how to approach these populations with therapy. However, I did find them interesting, and considered many of the concepts for use in my personal intervention theory. Even though these theories took me by surprise, I recognize their importance in psychotherapy approaches to counseling. Conclusion All of the theories of psychotherapy discussed in this course are effective for specific people with specific needs. Despite the fact that some of the theories were surprising, they all have merit and can be effective with the right client. Even though I recognize the importance of all of the theories and theorists, I was able to relate to some more than others. After relating to certain theories and theorists, I was able to develop my own personal intervention theory based on cognitive and multicultural approaches to therapy. My personal intervention theory, along with the rest of the theories and concepts discussed in this course will guide me along my journey of employment as a juvenile probation officer in the future. References Jones-Smith, E. (2012). Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy: An Integrative Approach. Sage Publications.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Reed’s Case Analysis

Collins to devise a optimal marketing plan to accomplish that goal. Reed Supermarket's CEO has set their market share goal to 16%, 2 points up from last year. Reed doesn't plan to add any additional stores in Columbus, so Collins must find an alternative method to reach this market share in a price sensitive community. I completely agree with this goal because it one of the major methods to increase revenue growth for the company.Reed needs to continue its dominance in the Columbus market and fight against dollar stores and super centers and will be able to do so by Increasing their market share over time. The estimated market share for Reed in Columbus in 2010 was 14%. Reed had held a 15% market share five years earlier. The reason for this decrease in market share â€Å"attributed to the peak in encroachments by superstores and warehouse stores. Along with the economy and the increase in variety in options for consumers to choose from when shopping, Reed saw a slight hit In their market share. Reed supermarket Is slowly earning back their market and Is aiming to hit 16% by 2011. I recommend that Reed should differentiate their offerings in the Columbus market. Reed has always prided themselves on their large variety of products they can offer their customers. It is pertinent for Reed to follow their core business model and mission to retain their current core customer market.Reed's goal is to increase market share by 2% by 2011 and will be able to achieve this by Increasing their differentiation of offerings. This will in turn keep bringing their customers that make up the 14% market share they currently own and eventually bring in a new way of customers to achieve that extra 2% market share. An increase in market share will increase profitability for the company assuming all else remains the same and fixed costs don't increase. $5. 99 and 22. 7% $5. 34 and 20. 23% $0. 65 and 2. 7% On a financial standpoint, Collins should not continue the dollar specials ca mpaign because It Is lowering Reed's contribution margins. In the long run this will lower the company's profits and will reduce Reed's overall growth. On a marketing standpoint, the contribution margin loss is low enough that it can be recovered by increase sales or Justified as a marketing expense. Overall I believe that its more beneficial for Collins to continue the dollar specials campaign because of the marketing benefits and the minimal financial losses.Reed's Case Analysis By stingrays against dollar stores and super centers and will be able to do so by increasing their choose from when shopping, Reed saw a slight hit in their market share. Reed supermarket is slowly earning back their market and is aiming to hit 16% by 2011. Market share by 2% by 2011 and will be able to achieve this by increasing their costs don't increase. Because it is lowering Reed's contribution margins. In the long run this will lower the

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Discuss on modern England history Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Discuss on modern England history - Essay Example But, unlikely this marriage came to an end and divorced Anne after a few months, as well as executed Cromwell. (Hobbs, 2000) As like all the kings of England, Henry favored war alongside dancing and hunting. The first French campaign was prearranged by Wolsey in which Henry VIII proved himself to be an excellent minister. He defeated the Scots in 1513 at Flodden. Unfortunately, the war with French failed and a growing need towards a male successor was felt by Henry VIII. He wished to give divorce to Catherine (his former wife) because he only had a daughter from her. When he referred to the Pope for this issue, the permission was not given by him. Considering the history, he was rather interested in having a baby boy than being a love sick boy for Anne. He married Anne Boleyn in 1533 and had a daughter with her later on who was named Elizabeth. (BBC, 2012) As a consequence of this act of Henry VIII, the Pope excluded him from the sacraments of Roman Church by clerical sentence. The Parliament of England affirmed the decision of Henry VIII to break with the Church of Rome. He replaced Wolsey with Thomas Cromwell and took the most powerful and dreadful step of firstly establishing the Church of England and secondly, becoming the head of England’s Church. He put an end to the monasteries and also pursued other reforms such as unifying Whales and England; and also created Exchequer and Council of North. It was not Anne Boleyn he was interested in; it was the desire to have a male inheritor for his kingdom. By passing time, Henry also got tired of Anne Boleyn as she wasn’t able to give him a male successor, and thus he executed her for sedition and adultery in 1536. Subsequently, he married Jane Seymour who was able to provide him with a male heir in 1537, but fate has something else for Henry VIII. He died just after his

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Technical Writing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 4

Technical Writing - Essay Example Please consider my proposal. Observations and recommendations: Firstly, the design and output of the dog cages in regard to easy public access can be improved upon to increase successful adoptions. I have included a simple sketch to show you how best to optimize the shelter’s outdoor facility for dogs. By increasing the cage-size, it not only allows for multiple-dog living, but also improved social behavior in the animals. This in turn will shed the best light possible on the dogs when future-prospects enter the property. It also makes it easier to locate the shed in the rear of the area so a) it is out of the way from the public b) easier for employees to go to and from and c) lessens the chance of dogs escaping as it is within the fencing. Furthermore, to increase profits, this new design should be photographed and implemented on the No Kill website. The website should be updated weekly to avoid past-dates and appearing non-working to the possible donators. I also wish to no te that, although the descriptions of the dogs are â€Å"adorable and cheeky,† they lack complete honesty. Not every dog is going to be â€Å"friendly, family-loving companions.† The more honest you are the better. It not only sets you up for successful adoptions, but it builds more interest as the customers’ can trust you. ... Thank you. Sincerely, YOUR NAME "Proposals/[YOUR NAME]." The RFP described more than adequately meets the guidelines for implementing a mass understanding in how to create a proper proposal that will be accepted and considered by the team. Most businesses do not share this information to its employees. They expect them to already know how to do it. The author of the flextime proposal answered all of the questions employed by the RFP including funds, and incorporated everyone in the company, not just himself/herself. Although, Sally’s proposal suggests her selfishness in desiring a new space, it seems a bit excessive of the Board to believe that’s the only way she’s thinking before asking her. Perhaps, she misplaced her RFP or needed more help in understanding it, which is why her proposal fell short. Sally Twintree should have gone to another employee for aid if she did not understand how to properly put together a proposal or kindly asked the Directors for anoth er copy of the RFP to follow before she went ahead and gave it to

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

A comparison between western and east Asian philosophies Essay

A comparison between western and east Asian philosophies - Essay Example To begin, let us consider the prevailing East Asian mindset that typically goes into the consideration of areas of law and justice. It should be noted that East Asian thought typically includes a wide range of traditional philosophies combining a mix of Japanese, Korean, and Chinese ideas that span more than 2,500 years of history (Moody 166). The focus on this comparison with the West, however, will primarily deal with the Chinese influence, dating back as far as 221 Before the Common Era. In considering how issues related to law and justice related back to both the preimperial Confucian stage, in addition to the incorporation of Daoist traditions, one must consider both historical and philosophical teachings. Even during ancient times, penal codes were enforced as a sense of corrective justice, but Confucius espoused a system whereby the political emphasis in Eastern philosophy was to support a more elitist system where virtues of fairness were perceived to be the humane course of actions. Within this teaching, however, lied the incorporation of flexible standards that were to determine how opportunities and goods were to be distributive to the masses. This was referred to as distributive justice, which Confucian scholars taught was designed to eliminate the need for any type of corrective justice. In essence, the law is not to be applied equally to all classes of people, but the balance of power is to shift to the elite who then distributes justice to other as they see is best reflective of the times and the situations that society finds itself in.

Monday, August 26, 2019

Discuss and evaluate the sociological explanations, for the Essay

Discuss and evaluate the sociological explanations, for the differences in UK educational achievement in schools related to gender, ethnicity, social class and the ' hidden curriculum' - Essay Example difference in their levels of intelligence, organizational ability, professional ambitions, encouragement from family to acquire quality education and the resultant upward social mobility of individuals. The 1944 Education Act was milestone legislation for the improvement of student’s academic and personal progress and also for the improvement of social and welfare policies. Frozen milk in winter, free medical examination and transport payment from regional education authority were some of the highlights of the Act. It was a whole child welfare policy similar to the Every Child Matters green paper of 2003. There have been several changes in Britain to ensue the practice of the Act in the following six decades. The United Kingdom is now an expanded community with other European nationalities and a greater requirement for professionals at various levels. The earlier culturally homogenous population in schools is now comprised of many faiths and cultures. Therefore, the realization of the Act is now extensively challenging when compared to the society that prevailed in 1944. The challenges in implementing the Act and measuring the outcomes are basically from the changes in the moral, spiritual, cultural and social progress and personalized learning. The 1944 Education Act demanded LEA’s to offer state funded education for students till the age of fifteen, based on their aptitude, abilities and age. The prilimnary step to substantiate the Act was the provision of adequate schools. Though the Act did not specify the nature of secondary school it gave strong stipulation to increase the number of technical, grammar and secondary schools. But the number of schools were restricted to grammar and secondary schools with a few number of technical schools. The Act was reinterpreted in the 1960’s and a comprehensive education was rapidly expanded with schools like academies and specialist schools. The shift in school designation has catered to the pupil of different

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Finance Personal Statment Statement Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Finance Statment - Personal Statement Example I am motivated to beat the odds and change the Saudi Arabia culture in order to open the doors to female workers to aspire higher professional goals. I want to join your program for several reasons. One of my career goals is to pursue a career in teaching in the future. Most universities require its professor’s to hold PhD degrees. During the first year of the program I hope to get acquainted with the faculty and sharpened my research skills in order to select a good topic for my thesis. I am very passionate about finance. In high school I started following local and international stock markets and reading the financial page of the newspaper. A few years later once the internet arrived at my country I had greater access to articles and financial news. I wanted to study finance at the university, but they did not teach it for girls at that time in Saudi and my parents did not allow me to study abroad for cultural reasons. This led me to choose accounting as my major. Accounting is often regarded as the cousin to finance since both practices are interrelated. I got married in my last year of college on October 2001 and had my first child in 2003 and my second in 2005. Since 2002 I was signing petitions to allow women to enter Saudi organization of certified public accountants so they can hold the Saudi CPA. Finally in 2004 the acceptance was granted. I am a goal oriented, assertive, self motivated, and a hard worker that is not afraid of a challenge. I am also ambitious, a good analyzer, team player, and a great leader. I am aware of the impotents of self development. I have attended several workshops on the subject. In the latest which was about women leadership, the presenter asked what about the main challenges Saudi women faced while doing their dissertation. I thought a professional women network could be the solution. I took the initiative and

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Global Terrorism Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Global Terrorism - Research Paper Example Nevertheless, because of the differences in national legislation among countries, it is difficult to formulate a sole definition that perfectly fits with the numerous interpretations and meanings of the term. Terrorism is a universal event. In other words, it involves different countries with varying national legislations, political ideologies, and which is emotionally charged. Therefore, the way terrorism is viewed differs from one country to another depending on the conditions present in each country. As a matter of fact, these differences in the national legislation, and political and emotional ideologies, made it unfeasible for the United Nations to come up with a universally accepted criminal law definition for terrorism that is comprehensive and legally binding (Diaz-Paniagua, 2008). Ultimately, the reason for this difficulty is due to its nature that is heavily knotted to politics and emotion. Perhaps, the ideal way of defining terrorism is to base it on the use of violence; however, violence itself is a wide-ranging term depending on which country the violence exists; hence, it is still difficult to come up with a sole definition for terrorism that is universally accepted. The fe deral agencies and the military define terrorism differently in order to describe the type of programs that a particular agency offers. For instance, FBI utilizes the terms such as â€Å"counterterrorism† and â€Å"anti-terrorism† to refer to its anti-terrorism combat (GAO, 1997), and it goes the same with the military. Anti-colonial terrorism campaigns are basically resistances against weeding out the pre-existing geopolitical heritage of a particular civilization. In other words, an anti-colonial terrorism campaign is entrenched in a sense of an inconsistency in the identity of the colonizer and the prospective colony. This is crucial in that most terroristic activities arise from

Friday, August 23, 2019

Private Express Trust Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Private Express Trust - Essay Example Megaw LJ and Sachs applied a much wider approach to the phrase â€Å"relative†. However, this elucidation is challenging as it is very arduous for the court to test the claim. Megaw LJJ and Sachs tried to resolve this issue by emphasizing the onus on the person claiming to be an ancestor to demonstrate it. Sachs LJ observed that the class of those to whom a trustee can distribute the benefit of beneficiary’s right should be â€Å"conceptually certain.† As per Megaw LJ, a discretionary trust can be said to be legal if there is a â€Å"vast number â€Å"of beneficiaries who are falling well within the class to whom a trustee can divide the benefit of trustee’s right. The additional conditions inflicted by Megaw LJJ and Sachs did not help in adhering the objective of the â€Å" any given person† test thereby paving the court to direct whether the trustee distributes the benefit of the right to an individual outside the permitted class. Hence, Re Bade n No is different from McPhail test as it was more narrow and strict. Though Stamp opinion was the minority in nature, which was in tandem with findings in McPhail. Sachs LJ test resolved many issues, by footing upon conceptual certainty and has eluded the challenging area of evidential certainty by retreating the accountability. In Re Baden, Sachs LJ footed his test on conceptual certainty, while Megaw LJ avoided the use of evidential certainty with his test where Stamp LJ employed â€Å"complete list† found to be beneficial.

Thursday, August 22, 2019

The Role & Impact of Treatment for Individuals with Substance Use Research Paper

The Role & Impact of Treatment for Individuals with Substance Use Disorders - Research Paper Example rious activities including research and trends with the purpose of significantly improving â€Å"prevention and treatment and to inform policy as it relates to drug abuse and addiction† (National Institute on Drug Abuse, n.d.). The â€Å"Results from the 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health† for instance revealed that â€Å"in 2010, 4.1 million persons aged 12 or older (1.6 percent of the population) received treatment for a problem related to the use of alcohol or illicit drugs† (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA): Past Year Treatment, 2011, par. 3). In this regard, the current research aims to proffer pertinent issues relative to the role and impact of treatment on individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs), particularly with cocaine, heroin and prescription drugs, or those classified under illicit drugs. The discourse would initially provide the definition for SUDs, prior to delving into the role and impact of treatm ent, as required. â€Å"Substance abuse is defined as a maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress as manifested by one (or more) of the following, occurring within a 12-month period: Recurrent substance use resulting in a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home (such as repeated absences or poor work performance related to substance use; substance-related absences, suspensions, or expulsions from school; or neglect of children or household). Continued substance use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of the substance (for example, arguments with spouse about consequences of intoxication and physical fights)† (American Psychiatric Association, 1994, p. 181). Treatment of SUDs would therefore depend on various factors: the type of substance or drugs used, the length of time these substances or drugs have been continuously used, the state or mental condition of

Anselm and Aquinas Perspective Essay Example for Free

Anselm and Aquinas Perspective Essay Anselm of Canterbury and Thomas Aquinas had conceptualized their own justification for the existence of God. For Anselm, he chiefly indicated his strong defense of intellectual foundations of Christianity under the concept of â€Å"ontological argument† for the existence of God. Anselm argued that the existence of God is not only in human minds but rather in reality. The idea of Proslogion had become the main argument of Anselm, which he used in order to defend his idea of God’s existence. The idea of ontological proof of had considered the concept of justifying the logic behind the existence of God. On the other hand, the ideas of Aquinas had provided significant approach of cosmological theology in order to prove the existence of God. Aquinas had utilized the five components of reason that justify God’s existence in a logical perspective. Discussion Ontological Proof of Anselm The ontological argument of Anselm considered the idea of Proslogion, which argued the logical being of God. According to the perspective of Anselm, the being of God is so evident that the definition present in the character of God is already enough to justify His existence. As stated in the book of McGrath (1998), in Anselm’s Proslogion, he offers the definition of God as â€Å"that than which no greater thing can be thought† (89). From the idea of Anselm, the existence of God came from the statement, â€Å"that than which nothing greater can be conceived. † The arguments of Anselm’s ontological proposal involve, God as the greatest possible being. Anselm argued that the notion and the nature of a being existing only in the minds of human being and society could not be considered as great or powerful. Hence, if God is to exist, He must exist in reality for Him to commence His power overall. In this logic, Anselm justified the existence of God, in not only the mind of Human beings but most of all in reality. In the perspective of Anselm, he utilized the idea of faith and logic in order to justify God’s existence. The idea of using faith gave the thought of God’s presence as determined by belief of His presence. For Anselm, in order for one to understand God’s existence, one should first believe that God exist in reality and not only in human minds. Faith had been viewed by Anselm as an important component in understanding the nature and the mystery for God’s existence. In the idea of faith, one does not have to consider the validity of truth or false in believing God’s existence, but only a simple indication of believing or not believing. In the context of faith, he argued that the existence of God is not the ones in the mind of men, but rather the agreement of faith. The human minds had their control on whether believing or not believing the thoughts of God’s existence. On the other hand, Anselm’s use of logic to prove the argument of God’s existence occurred in the concept of Proslogion. Within the logic of Proslogion, Anselm mentioned that the being of God under His characteristics of being transcendent and immanent were the main points to consider His existence. According to Hogg (2004), if God were not transcendent then there would be no reason to assume His necessity. If God were not immanent, then no one could know Him (95). Under the theology of Anselm, the concept of faith should facilitate the belief for the revelations of God’s existence, while the idea of Prologion gave rise to the logical reasoning of explaining the existence of God. Cosmological Proof of Aquinas Aquinas’ argument of the cosmological evidence of God’s existence revolved around five components, which provided the argument of his defense. In Summa Theologia of Aquinas, he argued using these five ways of justifying the existence of God under the basic thought of man’s relation with God as Creator and creation. In his first argument, Aquinas provided the â€Å"argument of motion† in order to depict the concept of change. He argued that the presence of dynamics in this motion was brought by a cause that possessed significant purpose. In addition, he mentioned that from a single cause of motion, another cause is employed, and from there, under still until the concept of unlimited causation arrived. Aquinas thought that the origin of this greater chain cannot possibly come from human nature but more significantly from God, which proved the He existed. In Aquinas’ second argument, he utilized the aspect of â€Å"cause and effect† argument that gave the idea of an event as being the effect and influenced by a cause. Somehow, the idea of the second argument had been derived from the concepts of motion wherein the cause-and-effect motion should always possess the original cause. In Aquinas’ argument, he pointed this original cause as God. In the third argument, Aquinas introduced the idea of contingent human beings, which he argued the purpose of the presence of non-necessity being (human beings) and the presence of necessity being (God). According to the perspective of Aquinas, the non-necessity being was able to come since the existence of the necessity being had always been present. Aquinas provided his declaration and personification of necessity being as God, who is the necessity being and facilitated every creation. The fourth argument of Aquinas, he proposed the idea of values origin. He considered that the values of goodness, grace, love, forgiveness, etc had all been originated from the positive background of God. The only nature that can provide the true intent of these values is God’s nature; hence, justifying the existence of God. Lastly, the fifth argument of Aquinas involved the necessity for a being to facilitate the task of supervising the creation, which can only be facilitated by God. Conclusion Within the study, the existence of God had been proven under two perspectives of Anselm and Thomas Aquinas. With Anselm’s Ontological proof of God’s existence, he defended with the two components of faith and logic. He argued that God is present not only in the human mind for God is great, and no being can be great if he only exists in the minds of men. Hence, with faith that God is existing, God indeed is existing, and because He is great, His existence is justified. On the other hand, Aquinas provided the five components that defended the existence of God. He introduced the argument of motion (God facilitated the change), argument of cause and effect (God as the very cause), argument of non-contingent being (God as the essential being), argument of the origins of values (God provided all the positive values), and lastly the argument of supervisor of creation (God sees and manages the happenings in the Earth). Works Cited Hogg, David S. Anselm of Canterbury: The Beauty of Theology. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. , 2004. McGrath, Allister E. Science Religion: An Introduction. Blackwell Publishing, 1998.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Where Fashion Inspiration Comes From Cultural Studies Essay

Where Fashion Inspiration Comes From Cultural Studies Essay In the words of Coco Chanel, Fashion is about what is happening. Fashion designers always use the idea of inspiration is on the street. Consumers themselves especially the young ones, are very inventive and inquisitive about clothing and designers look to this for inspiration and innovation when creating new ideas. One typical fashion initiated many years ago by the young and ordinary people off the street, are jeans, now every designer has their own signature version. Trends and the latest looks follow todays shifting society. Sports events like the Olympics and what is happening in the media, movies and music also reflect fashion. Famous celebrities are an excellent opportunity to promote new looks and influence ideas. The runways mirror what is happening in the world and fashion designers use this to create their work. In the fashion world they call it the bubble-up-effect, which could be another reason to why fashion appears to have a similar look or theme, especially if all designers are tuning into the spirit of the current times for inspiration. Carl Jungs theory about the collective unconscious which studied peoples minds and showed that it is inevitable in todays ever growing society for individuals to reflect and think the same ideas, at the same time. Is this not a consideration to designers when accusing other people of copying and plagiarising their work, that instead these designs, are original in their own right, especially when all designers are looking at the world around them, to influence their work. Clothes are about dressing a human being and the proportions of the human body are split into three blocks. The head, the trunk, which runs from the shoulders to the pubis and finally the extremities, which include two arms and two legs (Martin,2009,pg73). Apparel has to fit around this shape, so it could be argued that designs will take on similar looks to others, as no dress would be made to fit a three armed person. Fashion forcasting within the industry has become big business and plays a huge part when informing designers and their team, of what is deemed to be the newest fashion themes and colours for the following season. Agencies such as Nelly Rodi based in Paris have over 30 trend forecasters who travel all over the world gathering photographs, illustrations and fabric swatches for inspiration for their trend-books. Each season this agency produces separate trend books incuding knitwear, colours, prints and ready-to-wear to be sent to their clients which include Mango, HM, Givenchy amongst other high profiled prà ªt a porter designers (Seivewright, 2007,pg 82/83). There are lots of these agencies around including Style-Vision, Trendspotter, Informat who all do exactly the same job. However, an online service called Worth Global Style Network created in 1998 is the leading online trend-analysis and research service, which in a click of the mouse provides creative and business intelligence for the apparel, style, design and retail industries. (wgsn,online). This appears to be the quickest means to get the latest information to designers quotes Roger Tredre, the WGSNs editor-in-chief especially with the ever changing nature of fashion, speed is of the essence (Seivewright, 2007,pg 86). It is extremly difficult to speak to a designer and ask them were they get their inspiration from, as nobody wants to give away their sources and of course, nobody would ever admit to using other peoples ideas. However, according to a New York based fashion designer designers do look to other designers for inspiration (see appendix 1). However the word homage always appears to be an influential tool in designing. This could be either an old iconic fashion designer, such as the late Christian Dior who inspired collections for Vivienne Westwood, with his new look of the late 1940s and also paintings from French Rococo artist Jean-Antoine Watteau. Vivienne Westwood, in an interview for the Victoria and Albert Museum, spoke about how Christian Dior had inspired her through his designs, one being the long black fitted wool new look dress. This is a form of tribute and homage to a designer, as instead of stealing his original ideas and innovation, she has celebrated him for influencing her work, as she was a teenager growing up when this magical look was around and women were starting to dress more glamorous. Today Vivienne Westwood finds her inspiration from the past especially in the VAs collections of fashion, furniture and paintings. (vam,2004,online) However, in the case of Muiccia Prada homage and inspiration is purchasing a jacket in an expensive Paris vintage store called Didier Ludot and the next season this identical Dior jacket is in the new Prada collection. No different in design to the one bought previously from Paris. This surely is not homage rather design theft. Topshop or any other high street store would not get away with this stolen innovation, especially if it was a near identical to a influential top end designer such as Prada or Chloe. Fashion designers have always looked back through the archives of history for inspiration. (learcenter,2005,online) From a recent email from a designer who works for Ralph Lauren in New York and who has previously worked for Abercrombie and Fitch, spoke not only about designers looking to other designers for inspiration, but the importance of vintage garments. They also try to copy these vintage designs in more modern fabrics and put their own spin on them. Another idea was looking again at what had previously sold well in the past and updating this in new fabrics and different colours. Another creative and fun idea is using snippets from bought and vintage samples, and merging different ideas together a collar from one style with a pocket of another (Appendix 1). In a Marc Jacobs documentary filmed in 2006,for his 2007 shows, Marc Jacobs who designs for Louis Vuitton as well as under his own label, shows where he gets his inspiration from. He uses walls covered in vintage fashion magazines, posters, flowers and old tortured fabrics to gather new innovation, using snippets from all these sources to enthuse new ideas. Again he looks through the archives of their successful designs and updates previous lines. Bricolage, is a french term used in the creative process of fashion and according to many is one of the primary dynamics. This term simply means reinventing something new by changing elements, mixing and bringing the clothing back to life by inputting new fabrics and stitch ideas. This is evident amongst all designers including Marc Jacobs An old mauve jumper becomes a lovely updated cashmere jumper (youtube,2006,online). With so much dress history available today shown in costume museums and vintage Vogues, as well as other influential magazines, it comes as no surprise that designers will always look to the past or other cultures for inspiration. Vivienne Westwood has in many collections used direct references to historical silhouettes and styles, such as famous paintings. Here is a picture of the Watteau evening dress created by Vivienne Westwood for a collection in 1996. This style is influenced from a Watteau painting of his cousins captured in image 1. It is very obvious in the shape and fullness of this dress that this artist, has inspired her with this creation. Victorian interpretations have always been a source of inspiration for other designers including DG who used the Victorian sleeves to inspire him, when creating a different look to a contemporary denim jacket. Fashion frequently looks to shape and materials of the past, as a form inspiration for new styles, as the workmanship and attention to detail is rarely achievable nowadays. According to Sue Jenkyn Jones who wrote the book Fashion Design, it also triggers a nostalgia for bygone lifestyles and the emotional aspect of clothing is an important element of design (Jones,2005,pg24). New technologies in fabrics and prints have always been seen as a form of inspiration. Designers will often select materials, gaining and enthusing ideas from its look, feel and aesthetics,  before designing a garment. This will then generate ideas from the silhouette and shape the fabric forms. Moodboards and visuals of a theme or idea will then start to be created selecting colours, historical references, lace, trims and eventually, ideas will start to present themselves. Fabric trade shows have a huge impact on the fashion world, however Premiere Vision which is held in Paris, every September, is the largest and the most influential of these events. Over 800 fabric manufacturers, as well as a huge host of designers and buyers attend these shows. Apparently it is not unusual to see designers like Christian Lacroix at these events, looking for inspiration as well as new specialized weaves (Tungate,2005,pg81/82). It is easy to see now were inspiration comes from, however when inspiration gets mistaken for imitation, how fair is this. Resources are put at risk. Designers invest time as well as huge amounts of money sourcing inspiration, testing fabrics, drafting dress patterns and checking that their creations are fresh, innovative and of a quality for there discerning customer. Who pays the price or is it only fair that every fashionista gets a chance to own a piece of luxury.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

The recent demographic, epidemiological and social trends in UK

The recent demographic, epidemiological and social trends in UK This essay is divided into two parts. First part deals generally with the recent demographic, epidemiological and social trends in UK. In demographic trends main concern is population change. The demographic transition model depends on countries mortality and the fertility rates. As these are one of the important deciding factors for population change, though migration is important trend in UK. Next are the epidemiological trends deals with life style diseases, non communicable diseases, mental health, disability etc. Finally, the combination of demographic and epidemiological trends gives the social trends. Second part deals with critically assessing the priorities for public health and health promotion. Because establishing priorities are more essential. Not surprisingly it will deal with obesity, lifestyle diseases, smoking etc., as twenty first century progress, public health and health promotions are the major concerns. The important demographic trends in UK is increasing aging population. According to ONS (2009), the population in united kingdom is ageing with the decrease in the younger population. This trend is seen constantly over past 35 years. Because of growing ageing population. It posed a great political and economic challenge to the country(Squire 2002).Because the life expectancy between 2001 and 2006 was 75.6 for male and 79 for female..There is steady increase in life expectancy of people(Bowling 2005).On the other side there is increase in non communicable diseases which are mainly due to behavioural and sedentary life style changes. These include diabetes, CVD, etc., which are mostly of preventable causes(Shah 2008).When it comes to social trends, it has an impact of both the demographic and epidemiological trends. Like the decreasing trend of labour work, this may be due to many reasons. Although there is a increase in the people who are economically active from 5 million in 1971 to 30.6 million in 2006( ONS 2007). Since this increase in economically active people does not increase the employment rate. There is decrease in the employment rate from 95% in 1971 to 79% in the recent period (ONS 2009) The proportion of percentage of crime is increasing like property crime, card crime or juvenile convictions etc., though the overall crime is decreased from 40% in 1995 to 23% in 2005.With increase in the crime rate, the spending on the other services like social protection is increasing. In 2003 it was  £4,710 per person, which is higher than any other countries. Other spending like those for sick and disabled is increased by means of disability living allowance and attendance allowance (ONS 2007). All the above, trends in the environmental change is present scenario which is concern of most. In the previous years climate change was given low level priority( Doulton and Brown, 2009). Both locally and globally the physical environment and their naturally occurring resources are affected by human activities, which may be due to both industrialization and urbanisation from the act of globalisation(DEBRA, 2009).All these process are due to global warming and climate change, which alm ost increased the temperature of UK. The highest temperature was seen recently in 2005 and the projection also shows that if the emission level is same as now it will have increase in overall temperature of 2- 3.5 degree Celsius by 2080(ONS 2007).In the Kyoto protocol, UK has a target to reduce the emission of green house gases to a level of 12.5% between the year 2008 and 2010(UNFCCC).Even though united kingdom emission reduced to a level, the emission from the aviation industry doubled between the year 1990 and 2004. Generally increased emission of carbon dioxide will have impact at many level, like the recent flood in the November with the collapse of bridges and infrastructure(DEFRA, 2009) and it will have impact economically( Taylor and Ortiz, 2008)According to Greenpeace UK, many people are dying every year because of climate change and in 50 years many species are going for extinction and the government policy needs an action not in words. When it comes trends for health prom otion and public health, following are the problems that getting priority in the recent trend. According to office National Statistics (2007), there are two interrelated factors which affects the demographic change. They are natural change and migration. In 1950s population change is due to natural change. But from 1970s natural population change decreased with decrease in birth rate. From 1980s population increased due to increase in migration level and decreases in death rates. Present trend that is from 2007, the change is equal on both sides. The projections for 2011-2021 show that the population change is due to natural, with increase of 57 % (NSO 2009). In 2005, there was 723,000 live birth when compared with 7000 increase from 2004. It was 34% and 20% fewer births in 1901 and 1971.The reason behind this was due to two world wars ( NSO 2007). The best indicator for peoples health status is life expectancy. It is calculated by the mortality rate of the country(Keith Green 2004).According to guardian.co.uk, the trend in life expectancy are dependent on two classes namely middle and poor class. In which middle class adopt healthy life style and poor will follow unhealthy one like drinking and smoking. The life expectancy for a baby born has reached highest level. This would be like 77.6 years for male and 81.6 years for female. Though females live longer than males, the gap between these two are narrowing. The narrowing is from 6.0 years to 4.2 years in last 25 years. A man at 65 years will live 17.4 years and women will live 20.0 years extra if the mortality rate is same as 2006-2008(ONS 2009).Moreover, the projections for the 2021 is like 80 and over for males and 84 years for females(Scambler 2008).In that, last eleven years of life for females and eight years life for males will lead a poor health(Keith and Green 2004) .Moreover there is increase in the unhealthy life expectancy where the old people are alienated from the modern society(Brown 2008). Ageing is the part of life which leads to debility and dependency but not always with disability(Watson,2008).Many consider chronological age for ageing, but chronological age is rough guide to biological age. Because age is measured by abilities and performance of the individual. Many health and welfare organisation consider age of 70 and 75 years as starting age for elderly than 65 years. (Donaldson Scally, 2009) According to office of National Statistics(2009),the advances in the treatment level and modernization leads to increase in the life expectancy from 85 to 90 years. But according to Donaldson and Scally(2009), increase in older population is not solely due to advances in medical field or technology or new drugs. The reason is decreased mortality of children when compared to early twentieth century where there is more deaths of infant and children. With decline in mortality and birth rate ,which projects older population to be increased(Robson 2006). The population pyramid in the beginning of twentieth century, it resembled like a pyramid with more young at the base and elderly at peak. In contrast twentieth century shows like a chimney than pyramid (Donaldson and Scally, 2009). For more than thirty years, ageing population is increasing with 1.2 million people,16% of them are over 65 years and most of them are in 85 years and more(Robert and Linda 2008).When compared between two years like 1971 and 2007,the population of aged is 0.3 and 1.0 for female ,0.1 and 0.4 for male(ONS, 2009).Although policy matters regarding the ageing like pension, health and social welfare provision which comes under expenditure along with keeping good life(Bowling 2005).However, old age people who need supportive care due to physical and mental debility may have one or more chronic diseases. According to social life cycle and ageing fourth age which has dependency and disability, but many remains in good health(Donaldson and Scally,2009). The policy maker have more concern in enabling the older people to be active, mobile and independence, which will make them to contribute to the society as a whole(Bowling 2005). Donaldson and Scally 2009, underpinned that while setting priorities for health care of old people, it should be categorised in three ways .One is those with good health and require no service, second is one with disabling condition such as stroke or dementia and final one is those experiencing age related problems from frequent falls, sensory deficits and memory loss Next to demographic trends is epidemiological trend which shows the countries health status. United Kingdom health trends basically related to behavioural which are mostly related to diet, smoking, drinking and physical activity. Most of the diseases are interrelated to the one of the sedentary life styles. In the past twenty five years, the prevalence of obesity has doubled (National Obesity Observatory).The prevalence of obesity is increasing 0.8 a year, which is three fold more tan 1980s (WHO Europe,2007).The first and the most important cause of diseases in UK is obesity. It showed a rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity in industrialised world and it is first and foremost cause of diseases (Donaldson and Scally,2009) which leads to reduced level of physical activity which is the part of sedentary life style(Barnett 2005). About 37% of the deaths in a year is due to overweight and obesity, which is the cause for the DALYs in aged people ( Allender Rayner 2007). In 2007,ov er one million where on treatment for obesity with 127,000 and 871,000 in 1999 and 2005(Miller et al,2008). By 2010 it will rise in the prevalence rate to three million, at the time of diagnosis these people will be having 50% long term vascular complications and one third of men and 28% of women will be classed as obese (Barnett 2005). This is growing concern in UK, because the relationship between the obesity with immediate clinical outcome like coronary heart diseases are common(Miller et al,2008).Obesity can be related to many other conditions like mental health, learning disabilities and physical disabilities( Ells et al, 2006).There is strong connection between obesity and other diseases like diabetes, disabilities, mental health etc., Apart from prevalence of obesity in whole population, childhood obesity is alarming in UK due to excessive intake of food and lack of physical activity. This trend is more pronounced in lower socio-economic areas(Pearce et al 2008).In 1955 WHO formed global school health initiative to reduce health problem among young people. As a part of the initiative in UK, National healthy school programme-HSP was formed to tackle childhood obesity. It has given priority to physical activity and healthy eating but not on social exclusion and fails to address experiences of marginalised and vulnerable groups in schools(Curtis 2008). The government policy on white paper like ` choosing the health: making the healthy choices easier the policy was implemented through public services agreement-PSA to halt obesity by 2010.It is delivered through local agency and by UNNAO (Mohetbati et al 2007) There are national targets to reduce children with overweight and obesity by 2000 level. The scheme where imp lemented locally to tackle it. But they are not designed , timetabled, resourced or evaluated(Pearce et al 2008) and there is no adequate attention was given to psychological implication of the intervention. The urgency of childhood obesity was reflected in department of health, the policy in this area of childhood obesity lacked co-ordination, surveillance and screening. It is not precisely articulated and explored (Lake 2009). Another important effect of obesity is diabetes. In UK every one person in three is diagnosed with diabetes(practice Nurse 2009).The prevalence rate increases in faster rate than US and Canada, with increase of 74% in past 6 years(occupational health 2009).It is showed that in 2008 it was 2.5million diagnosed with diabetes against 2.3million in 2007,that is 3.86% and 3.66% (Diabetes UK 2007 and 2008) According to Diabetes UK (2009) ,the projections shows that during 2010 there will be anticipated ageing and with growth of overweight and obesity. And by 2015 obesity will be the extra burden of  £6.3 billion to UK NHS. The country could face a diabetes explosion by 2025 with 4 million people will be affected and 500,000 will live with it unknown. It is blamed to be due to overweight and obesity (Occupation health, 2008). It is getting a major public health problem and it is also root cause of many life style diseases like cardiovascular diseases, stroke , blindness etc., Another beh avioural problem which is also the main cause for the above all diseases are smoking and alcoholism, which are the demographic risk to the population. Smoking is one problem which involves many disciplines of action. 2006 there were 12 million smoker in UK, of which the prevalence is higher among men than women for age groups except between 16-19 years. The gender difference is higher among 25-34 years with 33% for men and 26% for female and lower in those aged 60 years and above(Heartstats.org). There is decline in the prevalence to 21% in the age group of 16 and over by 2007(ONS 2007), but there is no considerable decline in the smoking rate among young women between the ages of 11-18 years(Bowles et al 2009). However in general prevalence is more among unskilled manual jobs than professional jobs (Hillier 2006).In 1974 51% of men and 41% women wants to give up smoking , but in 2005 25 % of men and 23 % of women want to give up cigarette smoking. The gender gap is getting decreased between these two years. But in general 66% of them want to give up smoking(ONS, 2009).The death due to lung cancer range from 90%, 80% to emphysema and bronchitis and 17% to heart diseases(ASH 2007). Moreover, one in three smokers will develop cancer in some stage of life and one in four will die of diseases. Smoking contributes to overall 22% of deaths in UK(ASH 2008).NHS spends around  £ 2.7 billion year for treating diseases caused by smoking(ASH 2009) Cardio vascular diseases is a condition which involves a group of condition which is caused mainly by obesity, diabetes, smoking, alcohol, sedentary life styles, which are interlinked. It includes heart diseases and stroke. It kills one in three people, which can be altered by life style changes(BBC 2008).CVD is biggest killer in the country which contribute to 200,000 deaths a year with highest rate than Europe. The projections for 2050 is every nine out of ten will be overweight and obese, which in turn is a contributing factor for CVD. It poses  £ 30 billion to NHS and to UK economy (Care Quality commission 2009).In 2006, CVD cost 14.4 million for health care system, out of which 72% for hospital care and 20% for drugs. Another important non health care cost is production loss. The financial burden from informal care is due to death and illness during working age. In 2006, informal care caused  £ 8.2 billion to UK government .In an overall it will cost  £ 30.7 billion a yea r (Heartstats.org).The main public health concern regarding CVD is alarming increase in death rate which is due to modifiable risk factors like obesity and smoking. Next common cause of death among the UK people is cancer. The trend of death due to cancer peaked for males during 1984 and fallen during 2007. For females it peaked during 1989 and fallen in 2007.In UK about 50,000 cancer deaths every year (BBC 2007).Cancer is followed by mental health. In the recent past there is strong relationship between mental health and economic downtown. There is a challenge that exist to tackle the mental health without compromising in quality of treatment. All around mental health cost about  £110 billion per year. This is increasing due to recession, unemployment, home repossession etc., The expenditure on mental health will double if the same situation exist( Royal college of psychiatrist 2009).Women are 19.1% higher than men in using mental health services. And old age people using double the size(mental health bulletin 2009).For this government has sorted out some priorities like support to employer from government , Right kind of support to people w ith problem and concentration on research to improve the present situation in co ordination from public health professional. This can done by public mental health approach (Royal college of psychiatrics). Inequalities due to migration are the constant problem in UK. It may be due to the difference in the level of deprivation (Connolly O Reilly 2007). According to ONS (2009), migration in is seen in two levels like immigration and emigration. International migrations contribute to population growth of UK in the recent years. The people emigrated from UK is 427,000 in 2008 which is high when compared to 341,000 in 2007. The number of people emigrated has doubled in A8 accession countries from 25,000 in 2007 to 69,000 in 2008. In contrast, people came to UK in 2008 is 590,000 when compared with 574,100 in 2007. However, there is decrease in NI number allocation between 2007 and 2008 shows that decrease in the number of people came to UK from other countries. There is steady decrease in people immigrating to UK between 2007, it includes both EU and Non EU. But there is sharp increase in people coming for formal study from 27% in 2007 to 32% in 2008(ONS).Immigration causes two problems to NHS, first is the abuse of overseas visitors and second is unchecked permanent migration with major illness and diseases like HIV, Tuberculosis and Hepatitis B. These diseases are communicable, intractable leads to spread which will cause serious public health problems (Moxon 2004).

Monday, August 19, 2019

Innovation Process of Amazon Kindle Essays -- Business, Online Store

INTRODUCTION Amazon.com entered the UK market as Amazon.co.uk on October 1998 by acquiring the site previously operated by Bookpages Ltd. The company began as US online book store in 1994. The retailer soon became very successful in the new market as its primary offer included over 1.4 million book titles, comprehensible search tools, secure transaction, direct shipping and also high discounts on thousands of popular books (Amazon, 1998). During 17 years of its presence on the market, Amazon offers various products and services including books, DVD, jewellery, electronics, furniture, , clothes, cosmetics, digital downloads, website development etc. (Datamonitor, 2010). Amazon significantly extended its product offer and currently is one of the leading online retailers in the world with several international websites and customers in over 200 countries. Amazon Kindle is one of Amazon’s recent remarkable products. Kindle is a portable device which allows user to read, download, and store e-books due to its wireless connection and internal memory (Amazon, 2009). The first version was originally launched in US market in 2007 and achieved success as sold out in five and a half hours (Patel, 2007). Later, Kindle has been through several upgraded versions; Kindle original, Kindle 2, Kindle DX, Kindle DX Graphite, and the most recent version Kindle 3 with improvements mostly on the shape, contrast, memory capacity, and operating system. Earlier versions of Kindle had been criticized for its aesthetic and user interface issues. Reviews from customers and gadget experts motivated Amazon to further improve the product. Kindle 3 was officially launched in July 2010. This new generation of Kindle is available in two options of connectivity;... ...cessfully established its position as market leader. This should be maintained with continuous and substantial improvement. Currently Kindle 3 operates in grayscale mode and it is potential for the company to develop the color version in the future. One thing need to be improved is its pricing strategies. The company should avoid reducing price on every new version as it could affect customer expectation and product value perception. Customer-oriented pricing strategies can be used in the future to establish Kindle standard price. This could be achieved by understand how customer use the product, the product benefit for customers, and estimate all relevant cost and compare how the product benefits offset these costs (Shiu, 2011b). This is an important point to consider in order to achieve sustainable position as the leading innovative e-book reader in the market.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Internet Security: Is Your Computer Ready? :: essays research papers fc

Internet Security: Is Your Computer Ready?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Internet Security. Those are two words that hold a huge importance on our lives today. For the past half-century even more so in the past near quarter-century, computers have become an important staple to one’s own way of living, and the world’s largest network of computers, the Internet, has become one of the most useful and essential resources for legions of users around the world. However, this and e-mail communication can have their drawbacks, and very serious drawbacks at that.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  There are those users, who we call hackers, who have the ability manipulate their own programs to infect, and attack various organizations and institutions around the world. And they perform these acts, â€Å"cyber-crime,† in the form of programs called viruses, worms, Trojan Horses, and spam, or junk mail. Companies also do this in spyware and adware. This is where Internet Security comes into play. Many programs have been created to protect computers and their resources from those who want to invade them.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Symantec Corporation’s Norton Internet Security, which has a new version every year, has been recognized as a benchmark program in providing the best protection for computers. This program is actually a combination of other Symantec products: Norton AntiVirus, Norton Personal Firewall, Norton Privacy Control, Norton Parental Control, and Norton AntiSpam. With this combination, Norton Internet Security blocks and removes Internet worms, e-mail worms, and viruses that are script-based, while allowing the user to go about his or her business on the Web. A new version of this product, which incorporates a simpler, easy-to-use approach for the user, has been scheduled to be distributed in fall 2004 (Chapelle 1).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  There can be times when the world’s best software companies can have their efforts backfire on them. One example of such an occurrence is Microsoft Corporation, whose operating systems Windows 2000 and Windows XP have been susceptible to flaws from other popular Internet security programs such as Internet Security Systems’ BlackICE Defencer and BlackICE Agent, resulting in a number of possibilities for opportunistic hackers (Fairplay 1). Microsoft will be releasing later this year a second service pack for their Windows XP operating system, programmed with a stronger firewall for computers running under this OS (Sandusky 1). One should not be surprised by the number of flaws that come with Windows XP, or any operating system.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Mrs. Kr

How long are the Florida Keys? Ans:106 Miles 2. Name the ten keys highlighted at this site. Ans:Key Largo, Islamorada, Long Key, Key West, Marathon, Big Pine, Tavernier, Grassy Key, Bahia Honda, Little Torch Key 3. Which key is known as the diving capital of the world? Ans:Key Largo is known as the driving capital of the world 4. Briefly describe the John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park in Key Largo. Ans: John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park is a spectacular underwater park. There is a nature trail inside the park.In the parks visitors center you are introduced to the underwater beauty of sea life 5. Describe parasailing. Explain what determines how high a rider can go. In one sentence, explain if and why you would like to try it. Ans:Parasailing involves the use of a parachute and a boat. The elevation of the rider is controlled by the speed of the boat and the amount of cable. I wouldn’t try parasailing because I’m scared of heights 6. What are the three sections of t he Florida Keys? Ans:Upper Keys, Middle Keys, and Lower Keys 7. Identify the key whose name means â€Å"purple isle. † Ans:Islamorada 8.List the key known as the sport fishing capital of the world. Ans:Islamorada 9. What part of Florida is known as the backcountry? Ans:Florida Bay 10. Name the largest U. S. park east of the Rocky Mountains. When and why was this park established? Ans:Everglades National Park is the largest U. S. park east of the Rocky Mountain. It was established in 1947† to preserve the primitive conditions† of certain wetlands extending from the Florida mainland 11. List some activities available in Everglades National Park. Ans:Ranger-led walks and talks. Boat tours. Hiking, biking and canoe trails. Back country camping and fishing 2. What was Tavernier Key used for in the eighteenth century? Ans:Wrecker used it as their base during the day, but at night they searched its reef for valuable goods from ships that had urn aground and sank13. Which key is both smaller and less developed than its neighbors, and what is its best asset? Ans:Long Key is the smaller and less developed than its neighbors. Its best asset is that it offers seclusion and ready access to activities on neighboring keys. 14. Name the first and second longest bridges in the Florida Keys. Ans:The longest bridge is the 7-mile bridge; Long Key bridge is second 5. How did Marathon get its name? Ans: Helping to build the tracks for a railroad in the middle of the keys, a worker commented that the job was a marathon 16. How many bridges connect the Florida Keys? Ans:42 17. Which bridge appeared in the movie True Lies? Ans:7 mile bridge 18. What is a botel? Ans:a floating motel room with dockage for a guest’s boat 19. In addition to Marathon, which other key has a commercial airport? Ans:Key West 20. What are the tiny, white-tailed deer on Big Pine Key called? Ans:Key Deer 21. What attraction does Looe Key National Marine Sanctuary have for tourists?Ans:P eople think it is the most spectacular coral reef in the Lower Keys. People enjoy snorkeling, skin diving, fishing, and boating. 22. What two corals does the article about the sanctuary mention? Ans:elkorn coral and massive star coral 23. How did Little Torch Key get its name? Ans:It was named after the torchwood tree 24. Which key is known in Spanish as Cayo Hueso? What does the name mean, and how did the key get this name? Ans:Key West is known in Spanish as Cayo Hueso, Which means â€Å" island of bones† Spanish explorers gave the key this name because they found the skeletal remains of Indians there 25. How far is Key West from Cuba?Ans:90 miles 26. What role did Key West serve before Fidel Castro came to power? Ans:it was a stopping for travelers between the United States and Cuba 27. What are some attractions of Duval Street? Ans:Sloppy Joes, Dival Street extends into art distract 28. Briefly describe the Hemingway Days Festival. Ans:The festival is in honor of Ernest H ernigway, who once lived in Key West. It includes a Hemingway look-alike contest 29. What happens during Sunset Fest? Ans:Every night people watch the sunset while being entertained by musicians and carnival acts 30. How do the locals refer to the Florida Keys and Key West? Ans:Paradise

Land Use Changes

1. 0 `INTRODUCTION 2. 1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY The trend in property development is not however unconnected with the increased awareness in making the highest and best use of land resources among competing uses. According to Balowe (1978) the term â€Å"landâ€Å" often mean different things depending upon the content in which it is used and the circumstances under which it is considered. Land takes a fundamental significance as a commodity in daily use for multi-various purpose over the years; it has influenced and continues to influence the daily lives of Nigerians as expressed in social, economic and political organization of various communities in Nigeria. However, the property market is an economic mechanism rationing land between competing and occasionally conflicting uses. The mechanism is often modified by State and local Government policies within the context of town planning, social needs and the distribution of income and wealth. As a means of allocating land between different uses, the market has been criticized to be inefficient because it fails to quickly meet up with the urban land uses particularly in the under-developed world. In an increasing cosmopolitan city like Lagos, the state Town Planning and the New Town Development Authority faces an uphill task of responding to the need for a total re-zoning of some residential layout like Lekki phase 1 with a view of increasing the values of private and profitable land uses. The greater the accessibility of a location, the lower the economic cost of movement in terms of distance, time and convenience the greater the comparative advantage and the greater the demand for property in the location. The increasing demand and the decreasing supply of commercial properties are exerting some expected pressure on residential properties in Lagos. Furthermore, the nearness to transport facilities like bus stations, water /sea ways, motorways, good road network services, facilities such as commercial banks, merchant bank, closeness to areas like Victoria Island, Oniru, Ikoyi, Lekki- Epe Expressway and areas on Lagos island where majority of the business activities takes place in Lagos and also its proximity to High income housing has made this area of study(Admiralty way Lekki phase1) more attracting, accessible and thus more profitable for citing of commercial enterprises. This pattern of accessibility is gradually modifying the pattern of Land-use, which is concomitant with the pattern of land values in Lekki. Thus users are able to put the site to its most productive use, would be prepared to pay the highest price or rent to acquire the developed property. The change of residential into commercial land use along the major roads of most government residential layouts in Lagos state has become so inevitable that people are no longer patient enough to wait for the approval of the Planning Authority. With or without approval or rezoning, offices, schools, churches, eateries, retail outlet, event centers etc are spring up in the study area in response to the need for them. The effect of such changes on the property values, its viability and the societal impact of this phenomenon on the area of study (Admiralty Way Lekki Phase1) are the back ground upon which this dissertation is based. 2. 2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Land resources tends to move to users who bid for the most for their control and to those uses that offers the highest return for their utilization. The value of a residential property will most likely increase when it is partly or wholly changed to commercial use. Those issues that come to mind are as follows: 1. What factors are responsible for the change in use from residential to commercial use in the study area? 2. What are the societal vices in the neighourhood? 3. What are the professional imputes from the Lagos State Town Planning Authority and the New Town Planning Authority that are in charge of Lekki axis? 4. What will be the effect of this change in use on the values of properties in the study area? 5. What is the profitability of such changes and should it be encourage or not? This dissertation attempts to provide answers to the above questions with a view to attract the above reactions of the New Town Development Authority, Property Developers, Estate Surveyors, Land Owners and Tenant towards a better understanding of the dynamics of land use and value in a fast growing city like Lagos. 2. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY As stated earlier, the purpose of this study is to proffer solution to the problem outlined in section 1. 2 above and in doing so; I shall critically examine the genesis and impact of change in use in property values in low density layout (Admiralty Way Lekki Phase1). I shall examine how transfer of land to its most profitable use is often frustrated by factors such as: a) The imperfect knowledge of buyers and sellers of the use to which the given property can be put. ) The impor tance of adequate zoning area for commercial activities within government estate c) The time- absorbing and costly process of seeking and acquiring new locations. d) The cost and legal complexity of acquiring properties e) The monopoly power of Town Planning and New Town Development Authorities. In conclusion, I shall establish if the ever increasing incidence of change in use should be encouraged by government. 2. 4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The outcome of this study is expected to create awareness for Lagos state Government through New Town Development Authorities and attract positive reactions from the Lagos State Government Property Development Commission, Estate surveyors, Landlord`s etc in the beneficial utilization of the dynamic of land use and land values in the fast growing city of Lagos , whilst the authority prepare itself for the task of development control, the property owners and occupiers will also plan strategies of reaping the benefit or otherwise of the phenomenon of change- in – use. 2. SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY There are numerous residential properties within the Phase1 of Lekki peninsular whose use have been changed from residential to commercial uses but due to time and limitation of words allowed for this thesis, this write up will focus on the effect of change in land use in the value of Government Estate on Admiralty Way Lekki Phase1 Lagos. 2. 6 THE STUDY AREA Admiralty way Lekki phase 1 is one of the Lagos State Government Residential Scheme under Eti-Osa Local Government, is an exclusively reserved low density residential area in Lagos. This Layout is accessible in very meaning of the word and enjoys basic infrastructure such as good roads, water, electricity, telephone etc. It is accessible vide Lekki- Epe Express way†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦with well laid out internal roads and flower hedges in wide set- backs. It has a plain topography with good drainage and the set-backs in most properties are adorned with beautiful flowers. Most courtyards in the layout are paved. The posh buildings are of unique architectural design and inviting scenery ion this layout maintains an appreciable degree of quietness. Most buildings are owner occupiers belonging to Elder State Men, Top Civil Servants and successful Businessmen and Women. The average size of a plot of land in this Layout is 800 square metres. 2. 7 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The main instrument of data collection for this research was through primary and secondary sources. The primary sources of data involve a field survey of the study area. It includes direct observation by the researcher and oral interviews with property owners and occupants. The secondary source includes facts, which were obtained from previous documented sources such as text books, journals, seminar papers and unpublished dissertations. This helps to establish the theoretical foundation of this study. CHAPTER TWO 2. 0 REVIEW OF RELATED LITEATURE 3. 8 THE CONCEPT OF CHANGE-IN –USE According to Balowe (1965) property development is not a one-for –all time affairs, but a continuous one. This means that property development is dynamic. It calls for adjustment to changing demand and changing technology toward satisfying the needs of a particular segment of users. Lee (1974) argues that changes occurring over time in the use of a neighbourhood, that aging of the residents and the growth and maturity of their children will eventually cause a turnover in the ownership of housing. Smith and Mccann (1981) argues that residential land uses succession theory is permeated by the â€Å"Life Cycleâ€Å" ideals of social ecology but the leading succession models offer conflicting interpretations of the sequence of change that residential areas are believed to pass through. They stress that models have not been substituted by analysis of the complete land use histories of all site in areas of change. Therefore, in their study of Edmonton, from 1961 to 1971, the study shows that life cycle concept has little value as an explanation of residential change in rapidly growing city like Lagos. A study by global environmental changes (2010) supports the conclusion that neither population nor poverty alone constituted the sole and major underlying causes of land use change worldwide. Rather, people`s responses to economic opportunities and constraints for new land uses are created by local as well as national markets and policies. Therefore, global forces become the main determents of land-use changes; as they amplify local factors. However, Ball et all (1998) argues that when land value rise land owners release land for commercial development and also shows the land owners rationality. 3. 9 THE MEANING OF PROPERTY VALUES The word â€Å"Valueâ€Å" does not have a specific and restricted meaning as it may mean different thing to different people. In the words of justice Brandies (1923) Value is a word of many meanings. The royal Institution of Charted Surveyor (RICS) also define value in the following terms â€Å" the best price of which an interest in property might reasonably be expected to be sold by private treaty at the date of valuation assumingâ€Å" a) A willing seller ) A reasonable period in which to negotiate the sale, taking into account the nature of the property and the state of the market. c) Values will remain static throughout the period d) The property will be freely exposed to the market e) No account is to be of an additional bid by a special purchaser As a result of Nigeria`s Colonial af filiation with Great Britain the above definition by the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors is adopted by the Nigerian Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers (NIESV) 3. 0 THE CONCEPT OF RESIDENTIAL AND COMMERCIAL USES Residential land use has been the oldest and fundamental among all land uses because shelter is one of the basic needs of man. Hornby (1980) defined residential use as â€Å"serving or used as residence in which one residesâ€Å". Residential use are therefore located in an area zoned mainly for living accommodation with some localized commercial centers to sell good and render services needed by the populace that reside in that area. Whist commercial use is a use involving the buying and selling of goods and services and for which profit is realized. It encompasses office, shops and is a predominant urban feature, which tends to be located at areas of greater accessibility from the city center. Lagos State has been a fast growing developing city like any other major city in Nigeria experience stiff competitions in land uses, particularly the demand of commercial users in fast encroaching and outstripping the effective demand for residential use thus creating imbalance for zoned residential neighourhood. . 11 FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR CONVERSION OF RESIDENTIAL USES TO COMMERCIAL USES IN THE STUDY AREA Practical observation as found in different cities in Nigeria indicates the economic factors, social factors, physical factors and high competitiveness in land utilization within the commercial nerve centres which results to uncompetitive users seeking for space within the zone of transition are contributors to the cha nge in use of land use patterns. Other notable factors include: 3. 2. 1 POPULATION INCREASE Lagos State is one of the fast growing city in Nigeria with the location of International Airport and Seaport which attracts people from various part of the country and worldwide and directly increases the total population of the people living in the city and thus the total number of people living in Lekki peninsular phase 1 which is one of the medium housing Estate by Lagos State government which was meant to provide sufficient accommodation for people. However, due to day to day increases in population and the paucity of sufficient accommodation to house them in commercial, industrial, education institution etc and in order to settle down and seek their living, property owners are fast converting most residential units in Lekki phase 1(Admiralty way) into commercial units. A drive down the way shows a drastic change from the usual resident units along the road to huge commercial outlet. 3. 12. 2 INSURFICIENT COMMERCIAL CENTRES An overtime observation shows that availability of commercial center along this way and axis around same was not enough to cater for the needs of the residence. In view of this, commercial centres were developed to meet the daily need of the residents but at a point due to development policies, high cost of development, non- availability of land area and land owner rationality, residential property owners tends to give room for conversion of their developed residential property to commercial property. 3. 12. 3 ECONOMIC GAIN Since commercializing properties yield more returns than residential use and due to property owners rationality, they prefer the commercial users by giving face lift to the fabrics of their building through extension, refurbishments, alterations, modifications. tc. These improvements attract commercial users to take advantage of the new structures by paying the newly negotiated rents to occupy them. The rents are luring, so other property owners follow suit and conversion become the order of the day on Admiralty way Lekki Phase1. 3. 12. 4 LOCATION Admiralty way Lekki Phase 1 is an easily accessible way in Lekki Peninsular and to other island`s were most major commercial activities takes place in Lagos State and due to this, commercial centres tends to expand their activities to the study area in order to move closer to their consumers and workers who resides in this axis. This made property owners to convert their residential properties for commercial uses since the location is well accessed to various routes of movement within the axis. 3. 12. 5 HIGH COST OF CONSTURCTING COMMERCIAL BUILDING Construction of purpose built commercial building usual cost a lot of money due to the high cost of building materials and ever increasing Land value. Going by the concept of highest and best use of property, property owners in the study area now prefer to convert their residential property to commercial properties or lease it out.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Digital library Essay

Digital library An electronic library (colloquially referred to as a digital library) is a library in which collections are stored in electronic media formats (as opposed to print, microform, or other media) and accessible via computers. [1] Wikipedia:VerifiabilityThe electronic content may be stored locally, or accessed remotely via computer networks. An electronic library is a type of information retrieval system. In the context of the DELOS [2], a Network of Excellence on Digital Libraries, and DL. org [3], a Coordination Action on Digital Library Interoperability, Best Practices and Modelling Foundations, Digital Library researchers and practitioners and software developer produced a Digital Library Reference Model[4][5] which defines a digital library as: â€Å"A potentially virtual organisation, that comprehensively collects, manages and preserves for the long depth of time rich digital content, and offers to its targeted user communities specialised functionality on that content, of defined quality and according to comprehensive codified policies. â€Å"[6] The first use of the term digital library in print may have been in a 1988 report to the Corporation for National Research Initiatives[7]Wikipedia:Verifiability The term digital libraries was first popularized by the NSF/DARPA/NASA Digital Libraries Initiative in 1994. [8] These draw heavily on As We May Think by Vannevar Bush in 1945, which set out a vision not in terms of technology, but user experience. [9] The term virtual library was initially used interchangeably with digital library, but is now primarily used for libraries that are virtual in other senses (such as libraries which aggregate distributed content). A distinction is often made between content that was created in a digital format, known as born-digital, and information that has been converted from a physical medium, e. g. paper, by digitizing. It should also be noted that not all electronic content is in digital data format. The term hybrid library is sometimes used for libraries that have both physical collections and electronic collections. For example, American Memory is a digital library within the Library of Congress. Some important digital libraries also serve as long term archives, such as arXiv and the Internet Archive. Others, such as the Digital Public Library of America, seek to make digital information widely accessible through public libraries. [10] Academic repositories Many academic libraries are actively involved in building institutional repositories of the institution’s books, papers, theses, and other works which can be digitized or were ‘born digital’. Many of these repositories are made available to the general public with few restrictions, in accordance with the goals of open access, in contrast to the publication of research in commercial journals, where the publishers often limit access rights. Institutional, truly free, and corporate repositories are sometimes referred to as digital libraries. Digital archives Physical archives differ from physical libraries in several ways. Traditionally, archives are defined as: 1. Containing primary sources of information (typically letters and papers directly produced by an individual or organization) rather than the secondary sources found in a library (books, periodicals, etc. ). 2. Having their contents organized in groups rather than individual items. 3. Having unique contents. The technology used to create digital libraries is even more revolutionary for archives since it breaks down the second and third of these general rules. In other words, â€Å"digital archives† or â€Å"online archives† will still generally contain primary sources, but they are likely to be described individually rather than (or in addition to) in groups or collections. Further, because they are digital their contents are easily reproducible and may indeed have been 1 Digital library reproduced from elsewhere. The Oxford Text Archive is generally considered to be the oldest digital archive of academic physical primary source materials. The future Large scale digitization projects are underway at Google, the Million Book Project, and Internet Archive. With continued improvements in book handling and presentation technologies such as optical character recognition and ebooks, and development of alternative depositories and business models, digital libraries are rapidly growing in popularity. Just as libraries have ventured into audio and video collections, so have digital libraries such as the Internet Archive. Google Books project recently received a court victory on proceeding with their book-scanning project that was halted by the Authors’ guild. This helped open the road for libraries to work with Google to better reach patrons who are accustomed to computerized information. One factor that gave Google an advantage is the librarie’s fair use argument. According to Larry Lannom, Director of Information Management Technology at the nonprofit Corporation should be for National Research Initiatives, â€Å"all the problems associated with digital libraries are wrapped up in archiving. † He goes on to state, â€Å"If in 100 years people can still read your article, we’ll have solved the problem. † Daniel Akst, author of The Webster Chronicle, proposes that â€Å"the future of libraries — and of information — is digital. † Peter Lyman and Hal Varian, information scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, estimate that â€Å"the world’s total yearly production of print, film, optical, and magnetic content would require roughly 1. 5 billion gigabytes of storage. † Therefore, they believe that â€Å"soon it will be technologically possible for an average person to access virtually all recorded information. â€Å"[11] Searching Most digital libraries provide a search interface which allows resources to be found. These resources are typically deep web (or invisible web) resources since they frequently cannot be located by search engine crawlers. Some digital libraries create special pages or sitemaps to allow search engines to find all their resources. Digital libraries frequently use the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) to expose their metadata to other digital libraries, and search engines like Google Scholar, Yahoo! and Scirus can also use OAI-PMH to find these deep web resources. [12] There are two general strategies for searching a federation of digital libraries: 1. distributed searching, and 2. searching previously harvested metadata. Distributed searching typically involves a client sending multiple search requests in parallel to a number of servers in the federation. The results are gathered, duplicates are eliminated or clustered, and the remaining items are sorted and presented back to the client. Protocols like Z39. 50 are frequently used in distributed searching. A benefit to this approach is that the resource-intensive tasks of indexing and storage are left to the respective servers in the federation. A drawback to this approach is that the search mechanism is limited by the different indexing and ranking capabilities of each database, making it difficult to assemble a combined result consisting of the most relevant found items. Searching over previously harvested metadata involves searching a locally stored index of information that has previously been collected from the libraries in the federation. When a search is performed, the search mechanism does not need to make connections with the digital libraries it is searching – it already has a local representation of the information. This approach requires the creation of an indexing and harvesting mechanism which operates regularly, connecting to all the digital libraries and querying the whole collection in order to discover new and updated resources. OAI-PMH is frequently used by digital libraries for allowing metadata to be harvested. A benefit to this approach is that the search mechanism has full control over indexing and ranking algorithms, possibly 2 Digital library allowing more consistent results. A drawback is that harvesting and indexing systems are more resource-intensive and therefore expensive. Frameworks The formal reference models include the DELOS Digital Library Reference Model[13] and the Streams, Structures, Spaces, Scenarios, Societies (5S) formal framework. [14] The Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS) provides a framework to address digital preservation. [15] Construction and organization See also Digital Collections Selection Criteria. Software There are a number of software packages for use in general digital libraries, for notable ones see Digital library software. Institutional repository software, which focuses primarily on ingest, preservation and access of locally produced documents, particularly locally produced academic outputs, can be found in Institutional repository software. This software may be proprietary, as is the case with the Library of Congress which uses Digiboard and CTS to manage digital content. Digitization In the past few years, procedures for digitizing books at high speed and comparatively low cost have improved considerably with the result that it is now possible to digitize millions of books per year. [16] Google book-scanning project [17] is also working with libraries to offer digitize books pushing forward on the digitize book realm. Advantages The advantages of digital libraries as a means of easily and rapidly accessing books, archives and images of various types are now widely recognized by commercial interests and public bodies alike. [18] Traditional libraries are limited by storage space; digital libraries have the potential to store much more information, simply because digital information requires very little physical space to contain it. As such, the cost of maintaining a digital library can be much lower than that of a traditional library. A physical library must spend large sums of money paying for staff, book maintenance, rent, and additional books. Digital libraries may reduce or, in some instances, do away with these fees. Both types of library require cataloguing input to allow users to locate and retrieve material. Digital libraries may be more willing to adopt innovations in technology providing users with improvements in electronic and audio book technology as well as presenting new forms of communication such as wikis and blogs; conventional libraries may consider that providing online access to their OPAC catalogue is sufficient. An important advantage to digital conversion is increased accessibility to users. They also increase availability to individuals who may not be traditional patrons of a library, due to geographic location or organizational affiliation. †¢ No physical boundary. The user of a digital library need not to go to the library physically; people from all over the world can gain access to the same information, as long as an Internet connection is available. †¢ Round the clock availability A major advantage of digital libraries is that people can gain access 24/7 to the information. †¢ Multiple access. The same resources can be used simultaneously by a number of institutions and patrons. This may not be the case for copyrighted material: a library may have a license for â€Å"lending out† only one copy at a time; this is achieved with a system of digital rights management where a resource can become inaccessible after expiration of the lending period or after the lender chooses to make it inaccessible (equivalent to returning the 3 Digital library †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ resource). Information retrieval. The user is able to use any search term (word, phrase, title, name, subject) to search the entire collection. Digital libraries can provide very user-friendly interfaces, giving clickable access to its resources. Preservation and conservation. Digitization is not a long-term preservation solution for physical collections, but does succeed in providing access copies for materials that would otherwise fall to degradation from repeated use. Digitized collections and born-digital objects pose many preservation and conservation concerns that analog materials do not. Please see the following â€Å"Problems† section of this page for examples. Space. Whereas traditional libraries are limited by storage space, digital libraries have the potential to store much more information, simply because digital information requires very little physical space to contain them and media storage technologies are more affordable than ever before. Added value. Certain characteristics of objects, primarily the quality of images, may be improved. Digitization can enhance legibility and remove visible flaws such as stains and discoloration. [19] Easily accessible. Challenges Digital preservation. Digital preservation aims to ensure that digital media and information systems are still interpretable into the indefinite future. Each necessary component of this must be migrated, preserved or emulated. [20] Typically lower levels of systems (floppy disks for example) are emulated, bit-streams (the actual files stored in the disks) are preserved and operating systems are emulated as a virtual machine. Only where the meaning and content of digital media and information systems are well understood is migration possible, as is the case for office documents. [21][22] However, at least one organization, the WiderNet Project, has created an offline digital library, the eGranary, by reproducing materials on a 4 TB hard drive. Instead of a bit-stream environment, the digital library contains a built-in proxy server and search engine so the digital materials can be accessed using an Internet browser. Also, the materials are not preserved for the future. The eGranary is intended for use in places or situations where Internet connectivity is very slow, non-existent, unreliable, unsuitable or too expensive. Copyright and licensing Digital libraries are hampered by copyright law because, unlike with traditional printed works, the laws of digital copyright are still being formed. The republication of material on the web by libraries may require permission from rights holders, and there is a conflict of interest between libraries and the publishers who may wish to create online versions of their acquired content for commercial purposes. In 2010, it was estimated that twenty-three percent of books in existence were created before 1923 and thus out of copyright. Of those printed after this date, only five percent were still in print as of 2010. Thus, approximately seventy-two percent of books were not available to the public. [23] There is a dilution of responsibility that occurs as a result of the distributed nature of digital resources. Complex intellectual property matters may become involved since digital material is not always owned by a library. [24] The content is, in many cases, public domain or self-generated content only. Some digital libraries, such as Project Gutenberg, work to digitize out-of-copyright works and make them freely available to the public. An estimate of the number of distinct books still existent in library catalogues from 2000 BC to 1960, has been made. [25] The Fair Use Provisions (17 USC  § 107) under the Copyright Act of 1976 provide specific guidelines under which circumstances libraries are allowed to copy digital resources. Four factors that constitute fair use are â€Å"Purpose of the use, Nature of the work, Amount or substantiality used and Market impact. â€Å"[26] 4 Digital library Some digital libraries acquire a license to lend their resources. This may involve the restriction of lending out only one copy at a time for each  license, and applying a system of digital rights management for this purpose (see also above). The Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 was an act created in the United States to attempt to deal with the introduction of digital works. This Act incorporates two treaties from the year 1996. It criminalizes the attempt to circumvent measures which limit access to copyrighted materials. It also criminalizes the act of attempting to circumvent access control. [27] This act provides an exemption for nonprofit libraries and archives which allows up to three copies to be made, one of which may be digital. This may not be made public or distributed on the web, however. Further, it allows libraries and archives to copy a work if its format becomes obsolete. [28] Copyright issues persist. As such, proposals have been put forward suggesting that digital libraries be exempt from copyright law. Although this would be very beneficial to the public, it may have a negative economic effect and authors may be less inclined to create new works. [29] Another issue that complicates matters is the desire of some publishing houses to restrict the use of digit materials such as e-books purchased by libraries. Whereas with printed books, the library owns the book until it can no longer be circulated, publishers want to limit the number of times an e-book can be checked out before the library would need to repurchase that book. â€Å"[HarperCollins] began licensing use of each e-book copy for a maximum of 26 loans. This affects only the most popular titles and has no practical effect on others. After the limit is reached, the library can repurchase access rights at a lower cost than the original price. † [30] While from a publishing perspective, this sounds like a good balance of library lending and protecting themselves from a feared decrease in book sales, libraries are not set up to monitor their collections as such. They acknowledge the increased demand of digital materials available to patrons and the desire of a digital library to become expanded to include best sellers, but publisher licensing may hinder the process†¦ Metadata creation In traditional libraries, the ability to find works of interest is directly related to how well they were cataloged. While cataloging electronic works digitized from a library’s existing holding may be as simple as copying or moving a record from the print to the electronic form, complex and born-digital works require substantially more effort. To handle the growing volume of electronic publications, new tools and technologies have to be designed to allow effective automated semantic classification and searching. While full text search can be used for some items, there are many common catalog searches which cannot be performed using full text, including: †¢ finding texts which are translations of other texts. †¢ linking texts published under pseudonyms to the real authors (Samuel Clemens and Mark Twain, for example) †¢ differentiating non-fiction from parody (The Onion from The New York Times, for example). References [1] Greenstein, Daniel I. , Thorin, Suzanne Elizabeth. The Digital Library: A Biography (http:/ / www. clir. org/ PUBS/ reports/ pub109/ pub109. pdf). Digital Library Federation (2002) ISBN 1-933645-18-0. Accessed June 25, 2007. [2] http:/ / www. delos. info [3] http:/ / www. dlorg. eu [4] L. Candela, G. Athanasopoulos, D. Castelli, K. El Raheb, P. Innocenti, Y. Ioannidis, A. Katifori, A. Nika, G. Vullo, S. Ross: The Digital Library Reference Model. April 2011 ( PDF (http:/ / bscw. research-infrastructures. eu/ pub/ bscw. cgi/ d222816/ D3. 2b Digital Library Reference Model. pdf)) [5] L. Candela et al. : The DELOS Digital Library Reference Model – Foundations for Digital Libraries. Version 0. 98, February 2008 ( PDF (http:/ / www. delos. info/ files/ pdf/ ReferenceModel/ DELOS_DLReferenceModel_0. 98. pdf)) [6] L. Candela, G. Athanasopoulos, D. Castelli, K. El Raheb, P. Innocenti, Y. Ioannidis, A. Katifori, A. Nika, G. Vullo, S. Ross: The Digital Library Reference Model. April 2011, 17. ( PDF (http:/ / bscw. research-infrastructures. eu/ pub/ bscw. cgi/ d222816/ D3. 2b Digital Library Reference Model. pdf)) 5 Digital library [7] Kahn, R. E. , & Cerf, V. G. (1988). The Digital Library Project Volume I: The World of Knowbots, (DRAFT): An Open Architecture For a Digital Library System and a Plan For Its Development (http:/ / hdl. handle. net/ 4263537/ 2091). Reston, VA: Corporation for National Research Initiatives. [8] Edward A. Fox. The Digital Libraries Initiative – Update and Discussion. (http:/ / www.asis. org/ Bulletin/ Oct-99/ fox. html), Bulletin of the America Society of Information Science, Vol. 26, No 1, October/November 1999. [9] Candela, L. ; Castelli, D. & Pagano, History, Evolution and Impact of Digital Libraries (http:/ / www. igi-global. com/ viewtitle. aspx? titleid=47467& sender=4dcefe4d-ef33-4836-8eea-f02af2cc374d). In P. Iglezakis, I. ; Synodinou, T. & Kapidakis, S. (ed. ) E-Publishing and Digital Libraries: Legal and Organizational Issues, IGI Global, 2011, 1- 30 [10] Yi, Esther, Inside the Quest to Put the World’s Libraries Online (http:/ / www. theatlantic. com/ entertainment/ archive/ 2012/ 07/ inside-the-quest-to-put-the-worlds-libraries-online/ 259967/ ), The Atlantic, July 26, 2012. [11] Akst, D. (2003). The Digital Library: Its Future Has Arrived. Carnegie Reporter, 2(3), 4-8. [12] Koehler, AEC. Some Thoughts on the Meaning of Open Access for University Library Technical Services Serials Review Vol. 32, 1, 2006, p. 17 [13] Agosti, M. , Candela, L. , Castelli, D. , Ferro, N. , Ioannidis, Y. , Koutrika, G. , Meghini, C. , Pagano, P. , Ross, S. , Schek, H. -J. , & Schuldt, H. (2006). A Reference Model for DLMSs Interim Report. In L. Candela, & D. Castelli (Eds. ), Deliverable D1. 4. 2 – Reference Model for Digital Library Management Systems [Draft 1]. DELOS, A Network of Excellence on Digital Libraries — IST-2002-2. 3. 1. 12, Technology-enhanced Learning and Access to Cultural Heritage. Online at: http:/ / 146. 48. 87. 122:8003/ OLP/ Repository/ 1. 0/ Disseminate/ delos/ 2006_WP1_D142/ content/ pdf? version=1 [14] Goncalves, M. A. , Fox, E. A. , Watson, L. T. , & Kipp, N. A. (2004). Streams, Structures, Spaces, Scenarios, Societies (5S): A Formal Model for Digital Libraries. ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS),22 (2), 270-312. [15] â€Å"The DSpace team recognized the value of the OAIS framework and recast the repository’s architecture to accommodate this archival framework† [16] Committee on Institutional Cooperation: Partnership announced between CIC and Google (http:/ / www. cic. uiuc. edu/ programs/ CenterForLibraryInitiatives/ Archive/ PressRelease/ LibraryDigitization/ index. shtml), 6 June 2007, Retrieved 7. [17] http:/ / www. google. com/ googlebooks/ library. html [18] European Commission steps up efforts to put Europe’s memory (http:/ / europa. eu/ rapid/ pressReleasesAction. do? reference=IP/ 06/ 253& type=HTML& aged=0& language=EN& guiLanguage=en) on the Web via a â€Å"European Digital Library† Europa press release, 2 March 2006 [19] Gertz, Janet. â€Å"Selection for Preservation in the Digital Age. † Library Resources & Technical Services. 44(2) (2000):97-104. [20] Cain, Mark. â€Å"Managing Technology: Being a Library of Record in a Digital Age†, Journal of Academic Librarianship 29:6 (2003). [21] Breeding, Marshall. â€Å"Preserving Digital Information. †. Information Today 19:5 (2002). [22] Teper, Thomas H. â€Å"Where Next? Long-Term Considerations for Digital Initiatives. † Kentucky Libraries 65(2)(2001):12-18. [23] Van Le, Christopher, â€Å"Opening the Doors to Digital Libraries: A Proposal to Exempt Digital Libraries From the Copyright Act,† Case Western Reserve Journal of Law, Technology & The Internet, 1. 2 (Spring 2010),135. [24] Pymm, Bob. â€Å"Building Collections for All Time: The Issue of Significance. † Australian Academic & Research Libraries. 37(1) (2006):61-73. [25] Antique Books (http:/ / www. antiquebooks. net/ datatop. html) [26] Hirtle, Peter B. , â€Å"Digital Preservation and Copyright,† (http:/ / fairuse. stanford. edu/ commentary_and_analysis/ 2003_11_hirtle. html) Stanford University Libraries. Retrieved October 24, 2011. [27] United States Copyright Office, â€Å"The Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 – U. S. Copyright Office Summary† (http:/ / www. copyright. gov/ legislation/ dmca. pdf) 1998, 2. [28] United States Copyright Office, â€Å"The Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 – U. S. Copyright Office Summary† (http:/ / www. copyright. gov/ legislation/ dmca. pdf) 1998, 15. [29] Van Le, Christopher, â€Å"Opening the Doors to Digital Libraries: A Proposal to Exempt Digital Libraries From the Copyright Act,† Case Western Reserve Journal of Law, Technology & The Internet, 1. 2 (Spring 2010),145. [30] STROSS, RANDALL. â€Å"For Libraries and Publishers, an E-Book Tug of War – NYTimes. com. † The New York Times – Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. N. p. , n. d. Web. 6 Mar. 2013. 6 Digital library External links †¢ CNRI-DARPA: D-Lib Magazine (http://www. dlib. org/) Electronic publication that primarily focuses on digital library research and development †¢ http://www. librittio. com – World’s Most Advanced Professional Digital Library System †¢ / Democratization of Literature:The Rise of the Digital Libraries on the Internet (http://www. reflectionedu.com/ attachments/File/Barnolipi/EngT_8_11. pdf) by Tarun Tapas Mukherjee]. From BARNOLIPI: An Interdisciplinary Journal, Volume I, Issue II, 2011. [http://fbc. pionier. net. pl/ Search Engine of Free Resources, available online in Polish Digital Libraries (http://www. barnolipi. com/) Conferences †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ TPDL (http://www. tpdl. eu/) – International Conference on Theory and Practice of Digital Libraries ECDL (http://ecdlconference. isti. cnr. it/) – European Conference on Digital Libraries ICADL (http://www. icadl. org/) – International Conference on Asian Digital Libraries JCDL (http://www. jcdl. org/) – ACM and IEEE Joint Conference on Digital Libraries ICSD (http://www. icsd-conference. org/) – International Conference for Digital Libraries and the Semantic Web 7 Article Sources and Contributors Article Sources and Contributors Digital library Source: http://en. wikipedia. org/w/index. php? oldid=570781509 Contributors: — April, 24fan24, 2A00:1620:C0:50:C8B0:1C9B:27C1:7990, A. B. , Aap3030, Aarontay, Abdullah Albluchi, Acc60, Adoniscik, Afl2784, Aladin p, Alain Caraco, Alaniaris, Alexius08, Alf7e, Andrejj, Andy Dingley, Andyjsmith, Aragor, Arctic Kangaroo, Artdhtml, Ashenfelder, Ata, Ata.rehman, Azpayel, BadBull, Badan barman, Baileycw, Beetstra. BlindWanderer, Bob103051, Bomzhik, Bonadea, Bujar, Buridan, CVCE, Candela, Catfoo, Cej10, Ceyockey, Charivari, Chhotu372, Choukimath, Coldmachine, CommonsDelinker, Conversion script, Creationlaw, Curious1i, CutOffTies, Cwconservation, DGG, DaGizza, DabMachine, Dalf, Danny lost, Dawnseeker2000, DebbieWiLS, Deborah-jl, Denverjeffrey, Diglibs, Disavian, Djstasiewski, Dlkwiki, Dthomsen8, Dylan furnas, Eanc, Eilthireach, Enduser, Epbr123, Erianna, Evil saltine, Fatalityonline, Feedmecereal, Femto, Filterking. Floating red, Fmccown, Gaius Cornelius, Galka, Gareth Owen, Gego, Gouwepv, Greenrd, Greenteablues, Grika, Harris7, Hhanke, Hiogui, Hollymorganelli, Hu12, Ilsessay, Ipigott, Irbisgreif, Irishguy, Ithinkhelikesit, Ixfd64, JLaTondre, JakobVoss, Jaqian, Jchang12, Jeremykemp, Jewers, Jo 316, John, John Hubbard, Jpbowen, Jpom, Jsweetin, Jua Cha, Jweise, Kanags, Kansoku, Karen Johnson, Kattmamma, Katywatson, Kbel32, Kggy, Killian441, Kinu, Klemen Kocjancic, Ktr101, LadislavNK, Lawandtech, Lawsonstu, LeeNapier, Leonardo. candela, Loonymonkey, Lquilter, Ltfhenry, Lyc. Cooperi, Lysy, MBisanz, MK8, Maristella. agosti, Marselan, Martinlc, Masgatotkaca, Materialscientist, Mboverload, Mcanabalb, Mean as custard, Mets501, Mica Gomes, Michael Hardy, Mike. lifeguard, Missenc, Mmj, Mogh, Morbusgravis, Mordsan, MrOllie, Mseem, Mwisotzky, Mxn, Mairtin, Ncschistory, Nealmcb, NeilN, Neilc, Neo3DGfx, Nigholith, Night eule, Noisy, NorwalkJames, Notinasnaid, Nurg, OSU1980, Oicumayberight, OlEnglish, Olexandr Kravchuk, Olgerd, Omegatron, Pamplemousse, Patrick, PeepP, Phauly, Pinethicket, Pinkadelica, Poindexter Propellerhead, Poor Yorick, Prajapati Reena, Ps07swt, Ptgraham, Puckly, Padraic MacUidhir, Quadell, RJBurkhart3, Racheltaketa, Raghith, Rajankila, Rich Farmbrough, Richard Arthur Norton (1958- ). Rickprelinger, Rlitwin, Robert Thibadeau, Rozek19, Russell Square, SRHMGSLP, Sander Sade, Sandox, Sayeedmd, Senu, Sfiga, Shanes, Shyamal, SimonP, Skomorokh, Skysmith, Smmurphy, Spdegabrielle, Stbalbach, Stephen Burnett, Stephen Gilbert, Stevertigo, Strabon, StradivariusTV, Stuartyeates, Supersion, Svchameli, TWWhiting, TakuyaMurata, Targi, Tentinator, The Anome, The Evil Spartan, TheNewPhobia, Thebt, Thingg, Timeshifter. Tl246, Tlearn, Trapow, Travczyk, Treemonster19, Tregoweth, Trek011, Ttm1974, User A1, Utcursch, Vamshi 12345, Vanprooi, Vector Potential, Vicky877, Victorlamp, Viriditas, Volphy, WJetChao, Wavelength, Wayland, Wikiborg, Wmahan, Wya, YVSREDDY, Yerpo, Yosri, Zack wadghiri, Zundark, Zzuuzz, 302 anonymous edits License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3. 0 //creativecommons. org/licenses/by-sa/3. 0/ 8.