Wednesday, October 30, 2019

What is meant by technological determinism Please evaluate Essay

Technological Determinism - Essay Example However, an understanding of technological determinism will be required in order to prove this argument. In addition, the analysis of various concepts of technological determinism will be required so that the role of technology in facilitating the modern social networks and communication can be achieved. The main question of the essay: Is it true that technology is the cause of the changes in the modern society in regards to the socialization process within online communities as argued by technological determinists?  Ã‚  In order to answer the above question, various journal sources of information on the topic will be used within the main essay. According to Hartman (2007), the definition of technological determinism and the meaning of this phrase go beyond faster computing and technological processes. This article is a credible material that will be used to achieve an accurate definition of the term technological determinism. Using this article the various concepts which relate to this phrase will also is described so that a basis for its analysis can be set. The theoretical framework surrounding technological determinism will also be analyzed within the main essay. This will involve an evaluation of opposing theories such as Moore’s law and Marxism in relation technological determinism so that different understanding of the role of technology in social change can be ascertained. In describing and analyzing the theoretical aspects which describe technological determinism, articles by Sherman (2008) and Ceruzzi (2007) will be referred to in the main essay. Sherman (2008) will allow an understanding of technological determinism from the Marxism point of view.   On the other hand, Ceruzzi (2007) in his article will enable a clear understanding of technological determinism in line with the advances in technology such as an increased computer processing speeds and its use within social networks.   

Monday, October 28, 2019

Secret of Greatness Essay Example for Free

Secret of Greatness Essay Hard Work and Opportunity Gets You Further Than Natural Talent â€Å"Talent is cheaper than table salt. What separates the talented individual from the successful one is a lot of hard work.† ― Stephen King. Hard work and dedication is what will get you to the top. A person can have all the talents in the world but that can only get you so far. If you do not have the drive, determination, and dedication to succeed in whatever you do you will not succeed or conquer it as you would if you had put in the hard work to get better. Talent is overrated and overreacted. It is something that you are born with not something you have actually worked toward. The quote by Stephen King explains a lot it tells us that not only is talent cheap or something that is not worked for but it tells us that it is given and also it tells us what separates a talented individual from success is hard work which is something not given at all. Hard work is something you have to want for yourself and you have to go after it with everything you have to succeed. Also in the book â€Å"Outliers† it is said that working hard and practicing will get you further than sheer talent and that if you practice 10,000 hours you will be excellent at your sport or activity. The main thing that I took from this was work ethic, because in order for you to be excellent at something or the best you have to have a great work ethic which brings success. Take Tiger Woods for instance. He was a born winner right? Ever since Tiger was three years of age he had a golf club in his hands. He had competed many times and made a great impact at the professional level. But Tiger may have never got to the professional level if he had not worked. Ever since being a child to an adult he had worked toward his profession critiquing his skill making himself the athlete he is today. At a young age also Tigers father had instilled Tiger with a great deal of discipline which Tiger had carried with him as he worked toward his profession and devoted hours and hours into hard work in dedication. Through his use of discipline and hard work he had to remake his swing twice but he knew in order to be the best he would have to do so. A person that works hard is respected and looked up to because of the time he or she devotes to be the best. A person  that takes talent for granted and does not work hard is looked down upon. Talent is something that people are born with but if you do not take the opportunity to get better then you will not be the best. Opportunity is such a big word because it gives you the chance to succeed or be the best when we talk about hard work increasing your talent. Michael Jordan which is one of the best basketball players to ever live, but he may have never been the best player to ever live if it was not for opportunity and hard work. Michael Jordan was placed on the junior-varsity team at Laney High school in Wilmington N.C from the misrepresentation of his former coach Clifton â€Å"pop† Herring. Coach Herring had made this decision because most of the upperclassmen were guaranteed there starting positions on the varsity squad. At the time underclassmen hardly had played but Coach herring had made an exception for Michael`s fellow teammate Leroy Smith who had stood 6`7 and had made the varsity team. Even though Michael did not make the Varsity team he continued to ball out on his Junior Varsity team and make the best of it. However Over the summer he grew four inches taller and had worked hard t oward his goal to make his high school basketball team. His junior year, Michael had an opportunity to make the team and not to give up on his goal and that’s exactly what he did. Because of Jordan`s opportunity to strive for his goal to be the best, he had gone on to be known as one of the best players to ever step upon the court. I understand that people may say. â€Å"Well if the talent is there, why should I work?† And that in some sports it is kind of about talent more than work, but what I am arguing is that hard work and dedication will get you further than natural talent does. The outcome of a talented individual succeeding more than the hardworking individual in not as great as a hardworking individual succeeding over a natural born talented athlete or talented individual of any kind. In life you have to work hard to be at the top. Many people who sit back and rely on their natural abilities tend to pay the price because they never had that drive, determination, and work ethic. Many athletes are gifted in many ways and have lots of talent but they tend to lose sight of what is important and that is the hard work that you put in. Many of us are faced with many struggles in our lives but in order to overcome our struggles we have to be prepared to work hard and go after what we want. Things in life are not going to be given to you and people that use their natural ability and never  work hard tend to experience many struggles because they have no preparation to conquer the task at hand. Take Bill Gates for instance a money making machine who started out as just an intelligent, ambitious, and determined kid that had been known as the smartest kid on campus. Bill Gates talent was his broad spectrum of knowledge. As a kid he was enrolled in a private school for his outstanding efforts in the classroom. Bill then was introduced to computers and began to take a huge interest in technology. Since then Bill had lived on computers, working on them and spending many strenuous hours critiquing his skill. He then was put in a programmer`s group, they found a new way to apply their computer skill at the University of Washington. In the next year, they got their first opportunity in Information Sciences Inc, in which they were selected as programmers. They were allowed free computer time for exchange to work on a piece of software that could be used to automate company payrolls. Bill had spent twenty to thirty hours a week on computers or more. This opportunity got Bill prepared and made him even more focused on his goal in life. Bill had a talent but it all goes back to his work ethic. He constantly worked hard and put up lots of hours in order to now be one of the richest men in America and he still is working and striving for even more money. We can all be like Michael Jordan or Bill Gates but we have to recognize the opportunities which are given and take full advantage of each and every opportunity and use each opportunity to strive for better. Believing that hard work will get you further then natural talent. Remembering that by working hard and putting forth one hundred percent in whatever you do you will be prepared and ready for what’s in your way ahead. By preparing yourself you will not have to pay the price of failing because of going off of natural born talent all along. Remember no one looks up to a person that doesn’t work for what God has given them, people look up to ones that strive to be the best by putting in the blood, sweat, and tears to succeed at their goals. Work Cited Colvin, Geoffrey. Secret of Greatness. 19 10 2006: n. page Golliver, Ben. High school coach: I never cut Michael Jordan. CNN.Sports, 10 January 2012. Web. 15 Nov. 2013. . Gladwell, Malcolm. Outliers, the Story of Success. Little, Brown Company

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Operations and Legacy of the Dell Corporation Essay -- Business, Compu

Portfolio Project – Dell, Inc. Dell, Inc.’s origins date back over 25 years ago when it was founded under the company name PC’s Limited (Edwards, 2007). This once small company got its start when founder Michael Dell began building personal computers for students at the University of Texas. Today, Dell has developed its product line to offer more than computers; they also sell entertainment and office equipment. Dell’s leadership, guided by the corporate code of conduct, has shown a clear commitment to environmental matters and frequently publicizes the ways in which the company has developed new techniques to reduce the company’s energy use and product waste (â€Å"Latest update,† 2010). The main reason for Dell’s success is their ability to manage the financial health of their company. This success is reflected in the firm’s financial statements. There are three main financial statements that should be evaluated to understand the financial status of a firm – the balance sheet, the income statement, and the firm’s statement of cash flows (Keown, Martin, & Petty, 2011). The balance sheet provides a snapshot of the firm’s financial position on a particular date and includes information about the firm’s assets, liabilities, and shareholders’ equity. This particular financial statement is an overview of what the firm owns and what the firm owes (â€Å"Beginners’ guide to financial statements,† 2007). An analysis of Dell’s current balance sheet shows that they have approximately $40 million in assets - of which $29 million are current assets. This means that the firm expects to turn this amount of current assets into cash within the next 12 months (Keown, Martin, & Petty, 2011). Further analysis of Dell’s balance sheet reveals that the fir... ...1087&p=irol-reportsAnnual Keown, A. J., Martin, J. D., & Petty, J. W. (2011). Foundations of finance: The logic and practice of financial management (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Latest update on Dell corporate responsibility progress. (2010, October). Retrieved from http://content.dell.com/us/en/corp/d/corp-comm/cr-newsletter.aspx Loan rates. (n.d.). Omniglot. Retrieved from http://www.omniglot.com/info- articles/chicago/loans-rates.html Ogg, J. C. (2011, January 27). 2011†²s new dividend candidates from giant companies. 24/7 Wall Street. Retrieved from http://247wallst.com/2011/01/27/2011s-new-dividend- -from-giant-companies-amgn-brk-a-dell-ebay-emc-kss-csco-aapl/2/ Peavler, R. (n.d.). Use profitability ratios in financial ratio analysis. About.com. Retrieved from http://bizfinance.about.com/od/financialratios/a/Profitability_Ratios.htm

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Dental Caries

Dental Caries is a chronic disease of childhood that has reached epidemic proportions (Garcia-Cortes et al., 2014). The oral health of children is critical for their overall well-being with prompt diagnosis and early management being a key to the success of this approach. Despite significant progress in reducing oral diseases in developed countries over the past three decades, dental caries remains a significant public health problem, particularly amongst disadvantaged people and people living in remote areas (Estai et al., 2017c). Saudi Arabia is a large country with over 700 towns and villages. Despite the growth of dentistry in the Kingdom, there are still very few areas with specialized pediatric dental care. Specialists tend to be concentrated in the major towns and cities (AlShammery, 2016a). This increases the challenge of providing high quality pediatric dental care to every part of the Kingdom. This is a problem, as it is documented that a lack of dental care to the primary teeth will increase the risk of dental problems in the permanent teeth (Li and Wang, 2002). Pediatric dentistry is a complex field with the interaction of many different specialties. Children require not only restorative and endodontic care to the primary teeth but also require consultations from endodontists, prosthodontists and orthodontists on the condition of the tooth and future treatment planning. It is very difficult to locate such multi-disciplinary care even in smaller towns and almost impossible to obtain in remote villages of the Kingdom (AlShammery, 2016a). As a result of this maldistribution in the dental workforce, many rural and remote communities in are left underserved, leading to untreated oral disease (Estai et al., 2017b). Workforce shortages, sparsely populated regions, funding challenges and the decreasing cost of and advances in technology, have resulted in an increased interest in the adoption of telemedicine services (Bradley et al., 2010). The use of role substitution in dentistry is not a new concept. One of the potentially viable solutions to address geographical hurdles and the unavailability of dentists is mobile teledentistry (Estai et al., 2016b). Teledentistry allows local service providers to see advice from specialists without the patient having to leave the local practice (Marino et al., 2016).Teledentistry is a domain of telemedicine that emerges from the combination of information communication technology (ICT) and dentistry. For several decades, telemedicine has played a role in bridging gaps and overcoming barriers related to distance through expanding care access to unreachable populations (Estai et al., 2016a). Teledentistry is defined as the use of electronic information and telecommunications technologies to support long-distance clinical oral health care, patient and professional health related education, public health, and health administration (Marino and Ghanim, 2013). It is one of a number of growing solutions to address limited access to dental care is the utilization of telemedicine technologies in the screening for oral diseases, providing care, evaluation of care and referral (Estai et al., 2016c). There are two telemedicine modalities: real-time consultation and store-and-forward. For most dental applications, the store-and-forward method provides excellent results without excessive costs for equipment or connectivity (Daniel and Kumar, 2014). Mobile teledentistry is a subset of telemedicine that incorporates cellular phone technology and store-and-forward telemedicine into oral care services. Almost all smartphones have a built-in camera and mobile connectivity and are readily accessible at a low cost. (Estai et al., 2016d). Despite dental photography becoming an integral part of daily dental practice, it has rarely been used as means of diagnosis, consultation, or referral in routine practice. However, evidence on the use of smartphone cameras in epidemiological dental research is rare (Estai et al., 2017b).Given the need for specialist consultation in the remote parts of Saudi Arabia, there is a need for a study to examine the reliability of mobile phone teledentistry in the Kingdom. Since the mixed dentition is the period of maximum dental change for a child, this study focused on the use of mobile phone teledentistry in the mixed dentition.1.2 Aim of the StudyThe aim of the study is to test the reliability of mobile phone teledentistry in diagnosis of dental caries of children in the mixed dentition.1.3 Specific Objective of the StudyThe study had the following specific objective, which is to compare the diagnosis of oral caries in the mixed dentition obtained via teledentistry to the diagnosis of these conditions obtained by physical clinical examination.The use of mobile phones and the sharing of photographic data on platforms such as WhatsAppâ„ ¢ or Instagramâ„ ¢ is a relatively new phenomenon. However, the field of teledentistry itself is not new. This literature review tracks the development of telemedicine and teledentistry. It also looks into the validity and reliability of diagnosis made using photographs. Lastly, it seeks to demonstrate the demographic and human resource challenges that highlight the need for teledentistry in Saudi Arabia.2.1 Development of TeledentistryThe development of telemedicine began in the 1960s, when the United States department of defense decided to establish a data base of interconnected networks to provide healthcare to troops stationed in remote locations (Rocca et al., 1999). The US Army conducted the first study of teledentistry at Fort Gordon, Georgia in July 1994. In this study a dental image management system was used in conjunction with an Intra-oral camera to capture color images of a patient's mouth. These images were then transmitted over a 9600 baud modem from the dental clinic in Fort McPherson, Georgia to Fort Gordon, a distance of 120 miles (Rocca et al., 1999).The initial set up for teledentistry, relied on communication via modems and wire based telephonic communication (Eraso et al., 1996). In the 1990s, the internet gained rapid popularity with the public revealing of the World Wide Web, an entity that had hitherto been a secret US army project. This led to the exploration of newer modes of transmitting data. Reviewing the existing systems of the time, Eraso et al (1996) looked at the effect of digitalizing and transmitting tomographic radiographs. Tomograms of the temporomandibular joint were digitized in three different formats using a PC-based system. The image resolution for various projections was determined at different camera-film distances. Three series of images were transmitted by telephone, and transmission times were measured. They found that while no difference in image quality was found between the initial digitized and the transmitted images; transmitted and transmitted-and-printed images were of significantly lower quality than the original radiographs or the digitized images viewed on a computer monitor (Eraso et al., 1996). In the late 1990s, the national electrical manufacturers association had developed a standard guideline for the storage and transmission of images. Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) is a standard for storing and transmitting medical images enabling the integration of medical imaging devices such as scanners, servers, workstations, printers, network hardware, and picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) from multiple manufacturers. It has been widely adopted by hospitals, and is making inroads into smaller applications like dentists' and doctors' offices (Bauer and Brown, 2001, Folke, 2001, Chen and Chen, 2002). Chen and Chen (2002) compared DICOM images to existing videoconferencing techniques for the transmission of dental information. They found that DICOM images greatly reduced the cost of transmitting information without significantly compromising quality. The early part of the new millennium was characterized by the rapid spread of e-mail and electronic communications. The launch and spread of several free email providers such as Hotmailâ„ ¢, Gmailâ„ ¢, Yahooâ„ ¢ etc. meant that scanned images could be transmitted between persons without Dental Caries Dental Caries is a chronic disease of childhood that has reached epidemic proportions (Garcia-Cortes et al., 2014). The oral health of children is critical for their overall well-being with prompt diagnosis and early management being a key to the success of this approach. Despite significant progress in reducing oral diseases in developed countries over the past three decades, dental caries remains a significant public health problem, particularly amongst disadvantaged people and people living in remote areas (Estai et al., 2017c). Saudi Arabia is a large country with over 700 towns and villages. Despite the growth of dentistry in the Kingdom, there are still very few areas with specialized pediatric dental care. Specialists tend to be concentrated in the major towns and cities (AlShammery, 2016a). This increases the challenge of providing high quality pediatric dental care to every part of the Kingdom. This is a problem, as it is documented that a lack of dental care to the primary teeth will increase the risk of dental problems in the permanent teeth (Li and Wang, 2002). Pediatric dentistry is a complex field with the interaction of many different specialties. Children require not only restorative and endodontic care to the primary teeth but also require consultations from endodontists, prosthodontists and orthodontists on the condition of the tooth and future treatment planning. It is very difficult to locate such multi-disciplinary care even in smaller towns and almost impossible to obtain in remote villages of the Kingdom (AlShammery, 2016a). As a result of this maldistribution in the dental workforce, many rural and remote communities in are left underserved, leading to untreated oral disease (Estai et al., 2017b). Workforce shortages, sparsely populated regions, funding challenges and the decreasing cost of and advances in technology, have resulted in an increased interest in the adoption of telemedicine services (Bradley et al., 2010). The use of role substitution in dentistry is not a new concept. One of the potentially viable solutions to address geographical hurdles and the unavailability of dentists is mobile teledentistry (Estai et al., 2016b). Teledentistry allows local service providers to see advice from specialists without the patient having to leave the local practice (Marino et al., 2016).Teledentistry is a domain of telemedicine that emerges from the combination of information communication technology (ICT) and dentistry. For several decades, telemedicine has played a role in bridging gaps and overcoming barriers related to distance through expanding care access to unreachable populations (Estai et al., 2016a). Teledentistry is defined as the use of electronic information and telecommunications technologies to support long-distance clinical oral health care, patient and professional health related education, public health, and health administration (Marino and Ghanim, 2013). It is one of a number of growing solutions to address limited access to dental care is the utilization of telemedicine technologies in the screening for oral diseases, providing care, evaluation of care and referral (Estai et al., 2016c). There are two telemedicine modalities: real-time consultation and store-and-forward. For most dental applications, the store-and-forward method provides excellent results without excessive costs for equipment or connectivity (Daniel and Kumar, 2014). Mobile teledentistry is a subset of telemedicine that incorporates cellular phone technology and store-and-forward telemedicine into oral care services. Almost all smartphones have a built-in camera and mobile connectivity and are readily accessible at a low cost. (Estai et al., 2016d). Despite dental photography becoming an integral part of daily dental practice, it has rarely been used as means of diagnosis, consultation, or referral in routine practice. However, evidence on the use of smartphone cameras in epidemiological dental research is rare (Estai et al., 2017b).Given the need for specialist consultation in the remote parts of Saudi Arabia, there is a need for a study to examine the reliability of mobile phone teledentistry in the Kingdom. Since the mixed dentition is the period of maximum dental change for a child, this study focused on the use of mobile phone teledentistry in the mixed dentition.1.2 Aim of the StudyThe aim of the study is to test the reliability of mobile phone teledentistry in diagnosis of dental caries of children in the mixed dentition.1.3 Specific Objective of the StudyThe study had the following specific objective, which is to compare the diagnosis of oral caries in the mixed dentition obtained via teledentistry to the diagnosis of these conditions obtained by physical clinical examination.The use of mobile phones and the sharing of photographic data on platforms such as WhatsAppâ„ ¢ or Instagramâ„ ¢ is a relatively new phenomenon. However, the field of teledentistry itself is not new. This literature review tracks the development of telemedicine and teledentistry. It also looks into the validity and reliability of diagnosis made using photographs. Lastly, it seeks to demonstrate the demographic and human resource challenges that highlight the need for teledentistry in Saudi Arabia.2.1 Development of TeledentistryThe development of telemedicine began in the 1960s, when the United States department of defense decided to establish a data base of interconnected networks to provide healthcare to troops stationed in remote locations (Rocca et al., 1999). The US Army conducted the first study of teledentistry at Fort Gordon, Georgia in July 1994. In this study a dental image management system was used in conjunction with an Intra-oral camera to capture color images of a patient's mouth. These images were then transmitted over a 9600 baud modem from the dental clinic in Fort McPherson, Georgia to Fort Gordon, a distance of 120 miles (Rocca et al., 1999).The initial set up for teledentistry, relied on communication via modems and wire based telephonic communication (Eraso et al., 1996). In the 1990s, the internet gained rapid popularity with the public revealing of the World Wide Web, an entity that had hitherto been a secret US army project. This led to the exploration of newer modes of transmitting data. Reviewing the existing systems of the time, Eraso et al (1996) looked at the effect of digitalizing and transmitting tomographic radiographs. Tomograms of the temporomandibular joint were digitized in three different formats using a PC-based system. The image resolution for various projections was determined at different camera-film distances. Three series of images were transmitted by telephone, and transmission times were measured. They found that while no difference in image quality was found between the initial digitized and the transmitted images; transmitted and transmitted-and-printed images were of significantly lower quality than the original radiographs or the digitized images viewed on a computer monitor (Eraso et al., 1996). In the late 1990s, the national electrical manufacturers association had developed a standard guideline for the storage and transmission of images. Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) is a standard for storing and transmitting medical images enabling the integration of medical imaging devices such as scanners, servers, workstations, printers, network hardware, and picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) from multiple manufacturers. It has been widely adopted by hospitals, and is making inroads into smaller applications like dentists' and doctors' offices (Bauer and Brown, 2001, Folke, 2001, Chen and Chen, 2002). Chen and Chen (2002) compared DICOM images to existing videoconferencing techniques for the transmission of dental information. They found that DICOM images greatly reduced the cost of transmitting information without significantly compromising quality. The early part of the new millennium was characterized by the rapid spread of e-mail and electronic communications. The launch and spread of several free email providers such as Hotmailâ„ ¢, Gmailâ„ ¢, Yahooâ„ ¢ etc. meant that scanned images could be transmitted between persons without

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Pros and Cons of Television

For most people, watching television is an enjoyable way to spend time. It is an undemanding activity that passes the time and there are very few families that don’t own at least one television. Since so many people now own a television, there has been a proliferation in the number of channels available and shows to watch, so that you can quite easily find yourself spending hours in front of the television.Consequently, you may neglect other activities that need doing. Thus, although television may help to ease boredom, there are also some negative aspects associated with watching television.Breaking news shown live on your TVGlobal news network allows the latest global events to be aired worldwide and beamed directly to your living room. Examples (from top-left, clockwise) include September 11th attack, 2004 Tsunami in Indonesia, 2008 H1N1 outbreak and 2011 earthquake in Japan.Pros of watching televisionThe positive aspects of watching television include that you have somethi ng to talk to friends and relatives about. There are certain programs which are more popular than others and if you watch them you feel included and that you have something in common with the people around you. Television can help to foster a sense of national identity, since a significant proportion of the population will be exposed to the same kinds of news programs and television shows, so that people feel that they belong to a wider community. Plus, television can also be informative and educational, opening people’s eyes up to the world outside.Educational TV programsEducational TV programs provide priceless information that not only educate but also opens up your mind. Most of these programs teach and educate people on subjects that you may otherwise will not know and are never taught in schools.Cons of watching televisionNon-educational TV programsHowever, there are also a lot of television shows that are not very educational, and could even be considered trash. Realit y shows, for instance, offer nothing of any worth to the audience, yet people still tune in. People get hooked on shows which are poorly produced and concentrate mostly on issues of sex and violence. Although there is no conclusive evidence that watching violence on television makes children more violent, when there is so much violence on television, it makes sense that people would become desensitized to it, and that this could make it easier for children to engage in violent activities.Watching too much TV can lead to weight gain, poor social skills and lower academic results Unsupervised children spending too much of their time in front of a TV can have a big impact on their life. Obesity, lack of social skills and poor academic results are just some of the effects TV have on children. Some psychologist believe that too much TV time can have a major effect in the psychology of the child. Children are suppose to interact and play, not sit and watch.Poor parenting and weight gainIt is also evident that many people spend too much time watching television, so that parents don’t bother to spend any time playing or talking with their children. It is far easier to stick them in front of the television, rather than taking them to the park. It can’t be a coincidence that so many people are now overweight when they spend much more time watching television than they would have done years ago. People used to be a lot more active, but now television is the most convenient way for individuals to keep themselves occupied. Thus, they burn hardly any calories while most probably consuming an excessive amount of calories.It’s addictiveEven though there are many negative aspects associated with watching television, many people enjoy television far too much to reduce the amount  they watch or to avoid watching television altogether. People enjoy not having to think for themselves and to be able to sit down and watch something that helps them to relax, so why would they change?

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Pac-Man Video Game History and Background

Pac-Man Video Game History and Background On May 22, 1980, the Pac-Man video game was released in Japan and by October of the same year, it was released in the United States. The yellow, pie-shaped Pac-Man character, who travels around a maze trying to eat dots and avoid four mean ghosts, quickly became an icon of the 1980s. To this day, Pac-Man remains one of the most popular video games in history. Inventing Pac-Man If you ever thought that the Pac-Man character looked like some kind of food, then you and Japanese game designer Toru Iwatani think alike. Iwatani was eating pizza when he came up with the idea for the Pac-Man character. Iwatani has more recently said that the Pac-Man character is also a simplification of the  Kanji character for mouth,  Ã¢â‚¬â€¹kuchi.   While a pizza with a slice out of it turned into the main character of Pac-Man, cookies became the power pellets. In the Japanese version, the pellets look like cookies, but they lost their cookie look when the game came to the U.S. Apparently, Namco, the company that made Pac-Man, was hoping to create a video game that would entice girls to play as well as boys. And everyone knows that girls like food, right? Hmmm. Anyway, a relatively nonviolent, food-based video game with cute little ghosts and a bit of humor did appeal to both genders, which quickly made Pac-Man an unquestionable success. How He Got His Name The name Pac-Man continues the eating theme of the game. In Japanese, puck-puck (sometimes said paku-paku) is a word used for munching. So, in Japan, Namco named the video game Puck-Man. After all, it was a video game about a pizza eating super-powered cookies. However, when it was time for the video game to be sold in the U.S., many were worried about the name Puck-Man, mostly because the name sounded a bit too similar to a particular four-letter word in English. Thus, Puck-Man underwent a name change and became Pac-Man when the game came to the States. Playing Pac-Man Its probably a very rare person who has never played Pac-Man. Even for those who may have missed it in the 1980s, Pac-Man has been remade on nearly every video game platform since then. Pac-Man even appeared on the front page of Google (as a playable game) on Pac-Mans 30th anniversary. However, for those few who are unfamiliar with the game, here are the basics. You, the player, control the yellow, circular Pac-Man using either keyboard arrows or a joystick. The goal is to move Pac-Man around the maze-like screen gobbling up all 240 dots before the four ghosts (sometimes called monsters) get you. The four ghosts are all different colors: Blinky (red), Inky (light blue), Pinky (pink), and Clyde (orange). Blinky was also known as Shadow because hes the fastest. The ghosts begin the game in the ghost cage in the center of the maze  and roam around the board as the game progresses. If Pac-Man collides with a ghost, he loses a life, and the game restarts. If Pac-Man eats one of the four power pellets available on each level; the ghosts all turn dark blue and Pac-Man is able to eat the ghosts. Once a ghost is gobbled up, it disappears- except for its eyes, which run back to the ghost cage. Occasionally, fruit and other objects appear on the screen. If Pac-Man gobbles those up then he earns a point bonus, with different fruit worth different values. While all this is happening, Pac-Man makes a wocka-wocka sound that is nearly as memorable as the yellow character itself. The game ends when Pac-Man has lost all (usually three) of his lives. When You Win Many people are impressed with themselves if they get to level five or six on Pac-Man. However, there are always those die-hards out there who are determined to finish the game. Despite how popular Pac-Man was in the 1980s, it actually took 19 years for the first person to ever finish Pac-Man. That amazing feat was reported to be accomplished by 33-year-old Billy Mitchell, who finished Pac-Man with a perfect game on July 3, 1999.   A Scandal in Gaming Mitchell completed all 255 levels of Pac-Man. When he reached level 256, half the screen became jumbled. This is an impossible level to complete and thus the end of the game. It took Mitchell about six hours to win the game and he did so with the highest possible score- 3,333,360 points. Mitchell went on to record record-breaking runs in Donkey Kong, Donkey Kong Jr., and Centipede, and became a mini-celebrity, named as Gamer of the Century, featured in Life magazine in 1982 and in the 2007 movie The King of Kong: A Fistful of Quarters. In 2018, however, Twin Galaxies, the American organization that tracks video game records, announced their discovery that some of Mitchells record-breaking runs were not achieved on an arcade machine, but rather using emulation software, a violation of the rules. All of Mitchells titles, including his Guinness World Records, have since been stripped. Pac-Man Fever In the early 1980s, the nonviolent and goofy nature of Pac-Man made it a phenomenal attraction. In 1982 an estimated 30 million Americans spent $8 million a week playing Pac-Man, feeding quarters into machines located in arcades or bars. Its popularity among teenagers made it threatening to their parents: Pac-Man was loud and stunningly popular, and the arcades where the machines were located were noisy, congested places. Many towns in the United States passed statutes to regulate or restrict the games, just as they were allowed to regulate pinball machines and pool tables to combat gambling and other immoral behaviors. Des Plaines, Illinois, banned people under 21 from playing video games unless they were accompanied by their parents. Marshfield, Massachusetts, banned video games outright. Other cities used licensing or zoning to limit video game playing. A license to run an arcade could stipulate that it had to be at least a certain distance from a school, or it could not sell food or alcohol. Ms. Pac-Man and More The Pac-Man video game was so immensely popular that within a year there were spin-offs being created and released, some of them unauthorized. The most popular of these was Ms. Pac-Man, which first appeared in 1981 as an unauthorized version of the game. Ms. Pac-Man was created by Midway, the same company authorized to sell the original Pac-Man in the U.S. Ms. Pac-Man became so popular that Namco eventually made it an official game. Ms. Pac-Man has four different mazes with varying numbers of dots, compared to Pac-Mans only one with 240 dots; Ms. Pac-Mans maze walls, dots, and pellets come in a variety of colors; and the orange ghost is named Sue, not Clyde. A few of the other notable spin-offs were Pac-Man Plus, Professor Pac-Man, Junior Pac-Man, Pac-Land, Pac-Man World, and Pac-Pix. By the mid-1990s, Pac-Man was available on home computers, game consoles, and hand-held devices. Lunch Boxes and Other Collectibles As with anything super popular, merchandising went wild with the Pac-Man image. You could purchase Pac-Man T-shirts, mugs, stickers, a board game, plush dolls, belt buckles, puzzles, a card game, wind-up toys, wrapping paper, pajamas, lunch boxes, sheets, bumper stickers, plus so much more. In addition to buying Pac-Man merchandise, kids could satisfy their Pac-Man cravings by watching a 30-minute Pac-Man cartoon that started airing in 1982. Produced by Hanna-Barbera, the cartoon lasted for two seasons. In case you really wanted that wocka-wocka sound to stay in your head, listen again to the 1982 song by Jerry Buckner and Gary Garcia called Pac-Man Fever, which made it all the way up to No. 9 on Billboards Top 100 chart. Although the decade of Pac-Man Fever might be over, Pac-Man continues to be loved and played year after year. Sources Crecente, Brian. King of Kong Star Stripped of High Scores, Banned from Competition. Variety April 12, 2018.Gallagher, Marcus, and Amanda Ryan. Learning to Play Pac-Man: An Evolutionary, Rule-Based Approach. The 2003 Congress on Evolutionary Computation, 2003. CEC 03. 2003. Print.Goroff, David B. The First Amendment Side Effects of Curing Pac-Man Fever. Columbia Law Review 84.3 (1984): 744–74. Print.Lucas, Simon. Evolving a Neural Network Location Evaluation to Play Ms. Pac-Man. IEE 2005 Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Games. Ed. Graham Kendall and Simon Lucas. Essex University, 2005. Print.Moore, Mike. Videogames: Sons of Pong. Film Comment 19.1 (1983): 34–37. Print.Rife, Katie. King of Kongs Billy Mitchell Has Been Stripped of All His High Scores, Banned From Competitive Gaming. AV News April 12, 2018.Yannakakis, Georgios N., and John Hallam. A Generic Approach for Generating Interesting Interactive Pac-Man. IEE 2005 Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Games. Ed. Graham Kendall and Simon Lucas: Essex University, 2005. Print.

Monday, October 21, 2019

lynx essays

lynx essays With a pounce and a hop the speedy lynx chases the bleached white hare through the bushes. Poof! The hare disappears into the shiny white powder. Then the sly lynx picks up the scent of the hare and pounces toward the small hairball. The sharp elongated claws dont dig in, and the hares long slender legs launch himself out of the hole and out of danger. The swift cat swings his claws around to hit the fast hare, but he hits the snow right under his back legs. The hare runs right between two willow trees and into a narrow opening which has a bunch of fallen willow trees. The hare has escaped from the lynx this one time, but the lynx will find other food. The lynx is a pale brown to brownish grey with black streaks on its neck, forehead, and on the back. It has a short tail, long tuffed ears, long slender legs, wide feet for control in the snow, and long very soft fur. The lynx will grow to be 30 to 40 inches long, and 24 to 28 inches high from feet to shoulders. They usually weight 15 to 45 pounds. When you see the lynx, at first sight, it looks gaunt and lanky, but it is really fast and muscular. The back legs are longer than the fore legs for better pouncing ability. From the front the lynx looks royal with its hair on its face coming out to two points (Myers 136). The lynx is closely related to the bobcat, which populates the north American region. The bobcat does not have big fluffy paws, or is not as big as the lynx in relative size. They have two different food varieties. The lynx eats hares ,and also may prey on small deer, dall sheep, grouse, mice. Rarely they feed on fish. On the other hand bobcats feed on grouse , fish, and other small rodents. Lynx chase and still hunt their prey. They chase hares or t ...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Attila the Hun at the Battle of Chalons

Attila the Hun at the Battle of Chalons The Battle of Chalons was fought during the Hunnic Invasions of Gaul in present-day France. Pitting Attila the Hun against Roman forces led by Flavius Aetius, the Battle of Chalons ended in a tactical draw but was a strategic victory for Rome. The victory at Chalons was one of the last achieved by the Western Roman Empire.​ Date The traditional date for the Battle of Chalons is June 20, 451. Some sources indicate that it may have been fought on September 20, 451. Armies Commanders Huns Attila the Hun30,000-50,000 men Romans Flavius AetiusTheodoric I30,000-50,000 men Battle of Chalons Summary In the years preceding 450, Roman control over Gaul and its other outlying provinces had grown weak. That year, Honoria, the sister, of Emperor Valentinian III, offered her hand in marriage to Attila the Hun with the promise that she would deliver half the Western Roman Empire as her dowry. Long a thorn in her brothers side, Honoria had earlier been married to Senator Herculanus in an effort to minimize her scheming. Accepting Honorias offer, Attila demanded that Valentinian deliver her to him. This was promptly refused and Attila began preparing for war. Attilas war planning was also encouraged by the Vandal king Gaiseric who wished to wage war on the Visigoths. Marching across the Rhine in early 451, Attila was joined by the Gepids and Ostrogoths. Through the first parts of the campaign, Attilas men sacked town after town including Strasbourg, Metz, Cologne, Amiens, and Reims. As they approached Aurelianum (Orleans), the citys inhabitants closed the gates forcing Attila to lay siege. In northern Italy, Magister militum Flavius Aetius began mustering forces to resist Attilas advance. Moving into southern Gaul, Aetius found himself with a small force consisting primarily of auxiliaries. Seeking aid from Theodoric I, king of the Visigoths, he was initially rebuffed. Turning to Avitus, a powerful local magnate, Aetius finally was able to find assistance. Working with Avitus, Aetius succeeded in convincing Theodoric to join the cause as well as several other local tribes. Moving north, Aetius sought to intercept Attila near Aurelianum. Word of Aetius approach reached Attila as his men were breaching the citys walls. Forced to abandon the attack or be trapped in the city, Attila began retreating northeast in search of favorable terrain to make a stand. Reaching the Catalaunian Fields, he halted, turned, and prepared to give battle. On June 19, as the Romans approached, a group of Attilas Gepids fought a large skirmish with some of Aetius Franks. Despite foreboding predictions from his seers, Attila gave the order to form for battle the next day. Moving from their fortified camp, they marched towards a ridge that crossed the fields. Playing for time, Attila did not give the order to advance until late in the day with the goal of allowing his men to retreat after nightfall if defeated. Pressing forward they moved up the right side of the ridge with the Huns in the center and the Gepids and Ostrogoths on the right and left respectively. Aetius men climbed the left slope of the ridge with his Romans on the left, the Alans in the center, and Theodorics Visigoths on the right. With the armies in place, the Huns advanced to take the top of the ridge. Moving quickly, Aetius men reached the crest first. Taking the top of the ridge, they repulsed Attilas assault and sent his men reeling back in disorder. Seeing an opportunity, Theodorics Visigoths surged forward attacking the retreating Hunnic forces. As he struggled to reorganize his men, Attilas own household unit was attacked forcing him to fall back to his fortified camp. Pursuing, Aetius men compelled the rest of the Hunnic forces to follow their leader, though Theodoric was killed in the fighting. With Theodoric dead, his son, Thorismund, assumed command of the Visigoths. With nightfall, the fighting ended. The next morning, Attila prepared for the expected Roman attack. In the Roman camp, Thorismund advocated assaulting the Huns but was dissuaded by Aetius. Realizing that Attila had been defeated and his advance stopped, Aetius began to assess the political situation. He realized that if the Huns were completely destroyed, that the Visigoths would likely end their alliance with Rome and would become a threat. To prevent this, he suggested that Thorismund immediately return to the Visigoth capital at Tolosa to claim his fathers throne before one of his brothers seized it. Thorismund agreed and departed with his men. Aetius used similar tactics to dismiss his other Frankish allies before withdrawing with his Roman troops. Initially believing the Roman withdrawal to be a ruse, Attila waited several days before breaking camp and retreating back across the Rhine. Aftermath Like many battles in this time period, precise casualties for the Battle of Chalons are not known. An extremely bloody battle, Chalons ended Attilas 451 campaign in Gaul and damaged his reputation as an invincible conqueror. The following year he returned to assert his claim to Honorias hand and ravaged northern Italy. Advancing down the peninsula, he did not depart until speaking with Pope Leo I. The victory at Chalons was one of the last significant victories achieved by the Western Roman Empire. Sources Medieval Sourcebook: Battle of ChalonsHistorynet: Battle of Chalons

Saturday, October 19, 2019

To Explore the Model of Future Intelligent Buildings via the 2010 Dissertation

To Explore the Model of Future Intelligent Buildings via the 2010 Shanghai World Expo - Dissertation Example Words fail me, suffice to say thank you. I am deeply indebted to Dr. Abbas Elmualim, Academic Supervisor who made this piece of academic work a reality through his invaluable guidance, his assistance is greatly appreciated. I would also like to extend my gratitude to the MSc. Intelligent Buildings lecturers as the knowledge I gained during the lectures is precious and an inheritance for life. My grateful appreciation and thanks are extended to the following people who contributed directly and indirectly to the completion of this work: Gulay Ozkan Maxwell Masuku Bekithemba Mpofu Andrew Fraser Prof. Derek J. Clements- Croome Prof. Kecheng Lui To Patty, Samantha and Richard l says thanks for all your understanding and love. Finally I am grateful for the contribution made by GOD who ensured that I complete this dissertation. LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.1 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 1 Figure 1.2 Tomb of Cyrus 2 Figure 1.3. Sydney Opera House 2 Figure 1.4 Ostia Antee Roma 4 Figure 1.5 Pueblo Indian Dwelling 5 Figure 1.6 Frank L. Wright 6 Figure 1.7 La Sagtada Familia 8 Figure 1.8 La Sagtada Familia 8 Figure 1.9 La Sagtada Familia 9 LIST OF TABLES Table 2.1: Generations of Intelligent Buildings .14 Table 2.2 Pathology 15 Table 2.3 Matrix Tools 24 Table 2.4 Performance Factors 26 Table 2.5 Matrix Tools Analysis 28 TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ii STATEMENT OF PERSONAL CONTRIBUTION iii PREFACE iv LIST OF FIGURES v LIST OF TABLES vi CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 History of Architecture 1 1.2 Apartments. 3 1.3 Elevators 5 1.4 Architects of the 20th Century 6 1.5 Antoni Gaudi 7 1.6 Pei `9 1.7Other Trendsetters 10 Conclusions 13 CHAPTER 2: INTELLIGENT...We try to estimate various tools and concepts that give rise to similar results. In the process the notion of cultural diversity and varying climatic condition and socio-economic back grounds are often over looked. Therefore, this paper makes a full-fledged attempt to try to analyze ways in which such innovative technology could be made universal to integrate well with varying socio-cultural and climatic challenges. In the process it tries to understand the basic concept of an intelligent building, its aims and objectives, the special attributes that makes the design unique and truly smart enough to integrate with the existing setup. To determine the actual usability and cultural generalizability of these intelligent buildings, the people who experienced either building them or working in them were interviewed. The results of these interviews are shared in this study. Maslow theorized that man (for the sake of brevity) has a hierarchy of needs that must be met before he can reach a level of self-actualization, creativity, self-expression, and a place in life whereby he is able to express himself using his full capabilities. These underling needs must be satisfied first include, among other things, safety, shelter, and belonging. It does not take must imagination to recognize that architecture succumbs to this same hierarchy—first, man built sturdy, safe dwellings that provided security against marauders and the elements.

Friday, October 18, 2019

Using the Pyramid of Corporate social responsibility describe and Essay

Using the Pyramid of Corporate social responsibility describe and evaluate John Lewis's approach to Corporate Social responsibility - Essay Example To cater for this need, Carroll developed the pyramid of cooperating social responsibility (Crowther, 2010). The pyramid arranges the critical issues into philanthropy, ethic, legality and economic sectors. Philanthropy implies that the company should own up to the community. Contribute parts of its resources to the community, thereby improving the quality of life. Ethics covers doing what is right and fair. This means the business should not harm the community. In the past before the adherence of environmental policies, factories would pollute the rivers and the environment in a bid to getting rid of waste. Ethics forbids harm to the community, which may also occur in hoarding the goods for better prices. Legality covers obeying the law. The business should be legal and observe laws within the state, paying taxes, license renewal among other policies. Economic aspect includes the sole purpose of running a business. The aim is to make a profit. Without profit, the company cannot be able to meet its expenses and growth (Crowther, 2010). John Lewis Partnership embraces the premise of sustainability. The approach involves maintaining effective governance, actively engaging stakeholders, continuous performance monitoring and managing risks and opportunities. In order to maintain effective management, the Partnership employs well-educated and talented people with leadership traits. Such people are trained to make sound business decisions and to ensure the corporate achieves its goals. The board of managers and directors work hand in hand with other employees to provide a balance between investments and favorable working conditions. Waitrose and Lewis encourage sustainability by allocating resources to achieve focus. In comparison with the pyramid, this is in-line with the economic aspect. Without efficient decision making the company would run at a loss (John Lewis Partnership). Stakeholders include employees, suppliers, government agents and

Ethical Decision Making Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Ethical Decision Making - Essay Example Wayman reported in 2011 that in order to combat accounting fraud, US Congress enacted financial reform through the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX), which held entities more accountable for their bookkeeping methodologies by requiring senior management to attest to the accuracy of the data provided on the financial statements, as well as mandate companies to establish internal systems of checks and balances to police those crunching the numbers. The legislation lent more credibility and respect for the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) by reinforcing them as law rather than mere ethical guidelines. GAAP is used to create parameters for corporate accountants and auditors when keeping records of transactions and balancing budgets. The rules place emphasis on revenue sources, itemized balance sheets, and numbers of outstanding shares. It is designed to create absolute transparency for investors and restore confidence in companies’ financial statements.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Discuss the impact on British Society of the cultural revolution of Essay

Discuss the impact on British Society of the cultural revolution of the 1960s - Essay Example When social historians refer to "The Sixties", it is rare that they are talking about the decade in its entirety or that decade exclusively. For example, some claim that the sixties began, as a cultural phenomenon, in 1963. A convincing case can be made in support of this. Events such as the assassination of President Kennedy, Martin Luther Kings "Dream Speech", the debut albums of both The Beatles and Bob Dylan immediately appear as cultural turning points. 1963 appears to be the point at which civil rights, counter/youth culture and a new, somewhat alien mentality began to emerge into the mainstream consciousness. In spite of this, Marwick has argued that it is impossible to view the phenomenon in a "hermetically sealed" time frame, and that it truly began in the late fifties, and came to its conclusion in the early seventies. This is compatible with the idea that 1963 was important, indeed Marwick suggests it marks the beginning of the "High Sixties", but we must also acknowledge the gathering momentum of change in the years leading up to this point. Thus, the period of the Long Sixties I will be discussing here refers to 1958-1974. A far more difficult definition comes with the terms "cultural" and "revolution". To further complicate matters, when the two are used together, we can turn them into a proper noun, as with Mao Zedongs Cultural Revolution. Thus, it is important for us to differentiate between that Cultural Revolution, and Cultural Revolution in the far broader terms we are describing here. Was this a collective movement towards a universalistic revolution, or were individuals campaigning for their own singular interests? So what is a revolution, and, perhaps more pertinently, what is a culture? Revolution is a term which appears with startling regularity in world history, and has been applied to many different things. In this case, revolution refers to a paradigm shift

Managing Performance in Turbulent Times Research Paper

Managing Performance in Turbulent Times - Research Paper Example This paper examines how Google competes in the world of the internet and e-commerce. It examines the various points which Google uses to gain an advantage of its competitors and remain at the top of the industry. Barrows & Nechy (2011 p85) identify that the brain behind the success of Google lies in its ability to innovate. As compared to its competitors, Google spends more time and effort to identify new communication systems and methods at different points in time. Although Google started as a search engine company, it spent time and money to research and identify the true needs and desires of customers. In 2005, they launched personal email services which they believed was in demand by the markets. â€Å"They pursue a strategy that aims at increasing the capacity of computers and communication† (Png & Lehman, 2007 p3). This means that research and development are a fundamental part of Google. They put in more effort to find out what consumers need at every point in time and work to provide that specific service according to the highest standards and expectations possible. Google, therefore, sets out to organize the world's information rather than just make a profit for the sake of getting money from the consumers (Carter et al, 2011 p147). They, therefore, try to find ways of satisfying consumer needs at specific times. Google, therefore, has competitors not only in the normal internet companies but also, traditional publishers and other outlets. Google is aware that it operates in one of the most turbulent industries in the world. They, therefore, appreciate the fact that consumer needs change at a regular interval. Google, therefore, changes regularly to meet these demands. On the average, Google makes major changes to its strategy each month (Carter et al, 2011 p148). The internal structures of Google support its vision of leading in innovation. Googles workers are grouped in teams  of 20 – 50 employees under a single manager.

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Discuss the impact on British Society of the cultural revolution of Essay

Discuss the impact on British Society of the cultural revolution of the 1960s - Essay Example When social historians refer to "The Sixties", it is rare that they are talking about the decade in its entirety or that decade exclusively. For example, some claim that the sixties began, as a cultural phenomenon, in 1963. A convincing case can be made in support of this. Events such as the assassination of President Kennedy, Martin Luther Kings "Dream Speech", the debut albums of both The Beatles and Bob Dylan immediately appear as cultural turning points. 1963 appears to be the point at which civil rights, counter/youth culture and a new, somewhat alien mentality began to emerge into the mainstream consciousness. In spite of this, Marwick has argued that it is impossible to view the phenomenon in a "hermetically sealed" time frame, and that it truly began in the late fifties, and came to its conclusion in the early seventies. This is compatible with the idea that 1963 was important, indeed Marwick suggests it marks the beginning of the "High Sixties", but we must also acknowledge the gathering momentum of change in the years leading up to this point. Thus, the period of the Long Sixties I will be discussing here refers to 1958-1974. A far more difficult definition comes with the terms "cultural" and "revolution". To further complicate matters, when the two are used together, we can turn them into a proper noun, as with Mao Zedongs Cultural Revolution. Thus, it is important for us to differentiate between that Cultural Revolution, and Cultural Revolution in the far broader terms we are describing here. Was this a collective movement towards a universalistic revolution, or were individuals campaigning for their own singular interests? So what is a revolution, and, perhaps more pertinently, what is a culture? Revolution is a term which appears with startling regularity in world history, and has been applied to many different things. In this case, revolution refers to a paradigm shift

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

The issues that face the well-known clothes brands to open new stors Research Proposal

The issues that face the well-known clothes brands to open new stors in Perth City In Western Australia - Research Proposal Example As such, it will outline some of the factors that they should put into consideration, as well as the strategies that they must employ in order to capture the market and have a controlling share of the sales volume (Aage and Belussi 2008, p.45). The key objective of this research proposal is to determine the issues that face well-known clothes brands when they want to open new clothes stores in Perth City located in Western Australia. In identifying these issues, the research proposal will provide prospective investors with an avid avenue to invest in the city. Some of the key areas of research to cover include (Ambrose, Cohen and Tannenbaum 2003, p.17). This research comes at the backdrop of an increase in the entrants of new players in the fashion industry within Perth city. The city is located in Western Australia and lies within one of the largest metropolis in Australia (Mathur 2001, p.133). As such, the high population of people living in this city creates a viable opportunity for the market players to take advantage of and maximize their sales volume, thereby increasing their profits. It is among the most isolated cities in the world, with a calm and presentable habitat hosting over one and half a million residents. The city also lies along the coastal line and has beautiful beaches that define the lifestyle of the city adequately as a safe, quiet and laid-back city (Balmer 2008, p.182). As such, fashion investors need to consider these lifestyle practices and trends of city dwellers in order to determine the best fashions to market within the city. It is always advisable for the suppliers to provide customers with what they demand, rather than what they feel the customers might want to use(McCracken 1986, p.71). For instance, because of the long sprawling beaches and hot afternoons, the fashion industries can invest

Monday, October 14, 2019

Ensure A Safe Workplace Essay Example for Free

Ensure A Safe Workplace Essay The legislation and compliance requirements that are relevant to ABC Chemicals’ for all cabling done on the premise must be conducted by a fully certified and qualified tradesman. A normal IT Technician if not qualified cannot alter or create new Ethernet cables or any cable to be used in the workplace. They cannot re-route or add additional cabling into walls and they cannot install additional wall plates. ABC Chemicals have a mound of hazards that need to be fix before an incident occurs. Being constructed in 2000 the building has been fitted with limited emergency equipment. No emergency plan is displayed in the workplace and no workers have received any training in safe handling of chemicals. These three hazards alone can be catastrophic in causing the majority of the incidents in this business. Not only do they not have an emergency plan multiple vehicle accidents occur in front of the premise, if one were to go through the building no worker would know what to do. ABC Chemicals is situated within 25 metres of a local nursing home for elderly residents and a child care centre that provides day-care for children under five years old. This is a problem as all old chemical drums are placed outside for a month at a time. They are not enclosed or covered meaning any fumes from the drums would be released into the air effecting any businesses in a 25 metre radius, possibly more. Not only are old drums put outside, any material that is used to clean up small spills during the day is thrown straight into the general waste dumpster. Out the back where all the drums and dumpster is situated all that separates an overgrown dry grass paddock is a cyclone fence. If any of the drums falls over and chemicals leak out this can seep through the holes in the fence either cause the dry grass to combust or contaminate the land. If the land was found contaminated the construction of the future community centre would not go ahead. Each hazard that has been found at ABC Chemicals will go through a risk assessment to determine the likely hood of each risk. When assessing the risk three essential steps are taken. The chance of an incident occurring is evaluated then the severity or consequence is calculated or estimated. Once these two factors are found they are used to assign priority for risk  control that uses a risk rating. The building is fitted with limited emergency equipment with no emergency plan displayed in the workplace and no workers have received any training in safe handling of chemicals. These alone could cause a fatality, with the likelihood of this occurring at some time. They are classified as an extreme risk and should have immediate action to reduce their severity. To reduce the risk ABC Chemicals should arrange for all staff to complete training in safe handling of chemicals. Additional emergency equipment should be added to the premise and be easily accessible when an incident occurs and emergency plans should be scattered around the building so wherever you are you should know what is expected of you. The busy intersection in front of the premise is a cause for major injuries. As accidents have occurred in front of the business before it is possible for it to happen. This would be classified as an extreme risk and should be attended to immediately. By applying barricades to the surrounding area can reduce the possibility of a car hitting into the premise and cause major damage. All drums accumulated over a monthly period are placed outside with no coverage. The small spills that occur daily are also cleaned up and thrown into the general waste dumpster. There is no barricades to stop any spills from seeping through the fence into the dry grassed block of land. The fact that the drums are in a 25 meter radius of a local nursing home and a child care centre the fumes of these drums could damage the health of the young children and the elderly. Daily inhalation of these fumes and continuous leakage into the land behind the premise need an immediate solution in new ways of storing their waste until pickup day. This will reduce the chance of people becoming sick and reducing the change of the land behind to become contaminated and cease the future construction of a community centre. These All rags used to clean up small spills are =this could be very dangerous for Risk prioritization goes beyond risk ranking in that it compares scenarios a combinations of specific products and equipment, hazards, and control measures using multiple criteria. Some of these additional criteria may include cost of interventions or control measures, feasibility of implementing control measures, practicality of control measures, effectiveness of control measures, level of public concern, level of  certainty in the estimates and political will. There are many tools that can be used to assess the risks and risk causes. These being Safety data sheets, national and state injury statistics, industrial chemicals notification and assessment scheme and the standards and codes. The SDS provides information about materials before they are purchased and used on-site. It also gives information on potential hazards and effects of each material. The SDS helps by reducing hazards at the assessment stage by assessing the risk and hazard and applying a suitable and less hazardous replacement. SDS are available from the vendor or the manufacturer but can also be viewed online. National and state injure statistics are based on injuries that occur Australia-wide. By gathering this information, trends can be established which can be used to assist the development of precise preventative strategies. With this information, organisations similar to your business can help predict the most likely injuries. The Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme for new and existing products and chemicals relates to compliance with industrial chemicals legislation. The Australian inventory of chemical substances and all existing chemical s must be assessed and certified according to hazardous risk. Standards and codes consist of practical advice on issues and included preventative strategies to assist with hazard control. They are used as a baseline for comparison and a check for businesses to see if they conform to current legislation and meet the duty of care requirements.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Analysis of the National Environmental Policy Act

Analysis of the National Environmental Policy Act Summary of Laws Purpose: The purpose of the National Environmental Policy Act was to establish recommendations for federal agencies to encourage mitigation and reduction of potential damage to environmental systems from human-environment interactions that prioritized human interest over environmental health (Dept. of Energy, 1969). It was meant to educate federal agencies on how natural systems and ecosystem services are of critical importance (Dept. of Energy, 1969). In addition to the establishment of environmental guidelines, the act also created the Council on Environmental Quality, which made the President accountable to Congress on the welfare and health of the environment. (Dept. of Energy, 1969). Implementation: The law is administered by the Council on Environmental Quality, a federal agency that was established by the law itself (Council on Environmental Quality, n.d.). The Council administers the law through advising on the content of regulations, regulating the implementation of the laws procedures, as well as mediating between the different agencies and governmental bodies that work within the scope of the laws regulations (Council on Environmental Quality, n.d.).. The state government are involved through their branches of various federal agencies but they have no direct influence on the implementation of the law, their actions are subject to federal approval (Council on Environmental Quality, n.d.). The public has little chance to engage in the process beyond the presidential election process, as the Council is under presidential authority (Council on Environmental Quality, n.d.). The primary level of administration therefore is entirely federal, with little outside influence (Council on Environmental Quality, n.d.). The full text of the law can be found at:https://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/nepapub/nepa_documents/RedDont/Req-NEPA.pdf History of the Law This law was enacted in 1970, specifically on January 1, when President Richard Nixon signed it (Council on Environmental Quality, n.d.). Since it passed, the law has been amended several times. The first amendment was in 1975 through Public Law 94-83, which enabled states to write the environmental impact statements required for acquiring federal funding (Quartner, 273). The second amendment was passed later in 1975 as Public Law 94-52, and altered the allowed uses of funds by Council on Environmental Quality (Government Publishing Office, n.d.). Congress Demographics: The Democratic party controlled the chambers of Congress when the NEPA was enacted (US Senate, n.d). However, the Republican party controlled the Presidency (US Senate, n.d).The bill passed by a with a vote of 372 to 15 in the House of Representatives and was voted through the Senate by a unanimous vote (HistoryLink, n.d). Relevant Policy Principles: This law invokes the policy principle of common but differentiated responsibility, or command and control (Connelly, 189). Because it is a command and control based principle that makes it a rights based mechanism (Connelly, 188) This is due to the nature of this law which mandates that the federal government regulates the implementation of environmental policy, but there is a secondary level where the state level agencies also have a level of responsibility to uphold the standards set by the federal law (Connelly, 2012). This multiplicity of responsibility, where multiple parties are responsible, but no responsibility is designated as the superior one, fits in with the idea of this policy principle (Connelly, 2012). The primary strength of this kind of policy is that it prevents a race to the bottom type situation where companies move locations to find the most lenient restrictions (Connelly, 2012). However, in contrast, this policy is weak in that it takes away the opportunity for industries to be motivated towards innovation to avoid penalties (Connelly, 2012). Various Summaries: The National Preservation Institutes summary of the NEPA can be found at: https://www.npi.org/NEPA/what-is. The NPI is a nonprofit that aims to educate the public about cultural heritage (NPI, n.d.) as well as management (NPI, n.d.) and preservation, (NPI, n.d.) and offers seminars to instill this knowledge in its members through multi-day workshops (NPI, n.d.). This summary differs from the EPA summary of the NEPA in that it outlines the two main objectives of the act within federal agencies, whereas the EPA version is more generalized about what the act was intended to accomplish on a more societal level, mentioning industry and commercial operations (NPI, n.d.). The EPAs own summary can be found at https://www.epa.gov/laws-regulations/summary-national-environmental-policy-act. Works cited: Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ). Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) | Department of Energy. Department of Energy, n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2017. https://energy.gov/nepa/council-environmental-quality-ceq. NEPA | National Environmental Policy Act. NEPA | National Environmental Policy Act. Council on Environmental Quality, n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2017. https://ceq.doe.gov/. Senate Historical Office. U.S. Senate: Majority and Minority Leaders and Party Whips. United States Senate, n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2017. https://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/common/briefing/Majority_Minority_Leaders.htm. Summary of the National Environmental Policy Act. EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, Feb. 2017. Web. 17 Feb. 2017. https://www.epa.gov/laws-regulations/summary-national-environmental-policy-act. The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 as Amended. Environmental Impact Statements, Second Edition (1999): n. pag. The Department of Energy. Web. 2017. https://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/nepapub/nepa_documents/RedDont/Req-NEPA.pdf. United States Statutes at Large, Volume 89, 94th Congress, 1st Session. United States Statutes at Large, Volume 89, 94th Congress, 1st Session. Government Publishing Office, n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2017. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/STATUTE-89. What Is NEPA? What Is NEPA? | National Preservation Institute. National Preservation Institute, 14 June 2011. Web. 17 Feb. 2017. https://www.npi.org/NEPA/what-is. Andrew Quartner, Amending NEPA: State Preparation of Impact Statements, 5 B.C. Envtl. Aff. L. Rev. 271 (1976), http://lawdigitalcommons.bc.edu/ealr/vol5/iss2/5 Connelly, James, ed. Politics and the Environment: From Theory to Practice. 3rd ed. Abingdon, Oxonà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¯; New York: Routledge, 2012. Kershner, Jim. EPA, the National Environmental Policy Act. Free Encyclopedia of Washington State History, n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2017. http://www.historylink.org/File/9903.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

The Difference Between Men and Women Essay -- Men Women Compare Contra

The Difference Between Men and Women When they say opposites attract, they aren’t kidding! The difference between fondness and loathing of girls and boys are exceptionally vivid and apparent. After watching â€Å"The Notebook† for the six hundredth time, with tears streaming down her face, a girl can finally declare it as being her favorite movie, and maybe even deem it as the best production ever created. The clichà © motives of the woman always seem to involve love and a knight in shining armor. Naturally, every woman dreams about Mr. Right, and falling head over heels in love. This is why females are so vulnerable to passionate films. â€Å"My heart melted when I saw him kiss her like that.† Stereotyped as the hopeless romantics, girls live to love and be loved. Girls want relationships. Girls enjoy corny love movies. This is somewhat of an escape route for the girls, knowing that in reality, the average guy isn’t interested in a relationship, or falling in love. But for the sake of women, in the hours of our mourning, why not take advantage of the blockbusters while their...

Friday, October 11, 2019

Discuss Wharton’s presentation of the character development of Newland Archer

The character of Newland Archer is presented in this passage through his meditations on a range of issues. The scene is set directly after an Archer family dinner with a friend, Sillerton Jackson. Archer's reflections give us a glimpse into the way he thinks and the sort of person he is. Initially we learn about Archer himself and his background, he is from a wealthy family, with ever â€Å"vigilant † servants, â€Å"bronze† statuettes and his own study. We can also see from the description of the study that he is cultured, intelligent and well read. The passage allows us to see a little of his history, especially of the tale of his romance with May Welland. Her â€Å"large photograph† has displaced all others on his table, signifying that she and no other is first in his affections. Archer's view of their impending marriage is initially that he will be her â€Å"soul's custodian†, showing that it will be a very traditional relationship, that she is naive compared to him, and that he must protect and enlighten her. He was taught that marriage to May would be like â€Å"safe anchorage† in life but he tells us his belief is changing, that he believes it may be like a â€Å"voyage on uncharted seas†. This clear nautical imagery lets us see how Archer is coming to doubt his previously unquestioned conventional beliefs – â€Å"old settled convictions† – and that it may be dangerous for him to go into this marriage so unprepared. He is moving on, intellectually, questioning what he once held firm. Archer's attitude to his relationship with May is inextricably linked to his basic conventional traditional mindset. He sees himself and May as key players in a courtship ritual that they possibly could become stereotypical examples of people â€Å"linked by ignorance on the one side and hypocrisy on the other†. In a way he believes this is inevitable due to the society they both belong to, but it is not what he wants from marriage. He desires â€Å"passionate and tender comradeship† with May in their marriage; he loves her â€Å"sincerely†. However her attitude to her character shows that he does not fully understand her. He sees her as partly as an † artificial product† produced by her family, her up bringing, making her innocent and frank. He feels this is wrong that she has somehow been denied the right to be a full person, as she has been denied the experience of life, social, cultural and sexual, that he has been allowed to explore. He feels what has been created in her personality is false, but somehow we get the impression that this is something that has been hard for him to come across. He sees her as less than him intellectually, as she is not educated as he has been, in the arts and literature, and therefore senses her comprehension is less, when really it may just be her lack of exposure to his amount of learning. Newland Archer's relationship with the women soon to be his cousin through his impending marriage to May, Ellen Olenska, is that this point in the novel, still slight. He knows her partially through acquaintance but mostly through gossip. The way he thinks of her as â€Å"Countess† shows the distance and formality between them and he does believe that she has done something reprehensible that requires â€Å"championship†. This shows that although he believes † Women should be free†, this will never really apply to New York standards and he resents the â€Å"coil of scandal† her arrival has placed him in. Her arrival and the talk surrounding it seems to have acted as a catalyst to his thought patterns, hinting of a deeper relationship to come. She is this woman with foreign ways who could be â€Å"free† as men are, and she makes Newland aware of the implications and reality of his betrothal. Newland Archer's character development is presented throughout the passage as a struggle between what he did believe in and what he is coming to doubt the validity of through new experiences and thoughts. His attitude to society is important as it stands for his old conventional self, and his reactions to its dictates, especially on the theme of marriage, show how he is maturing and thinking independently. The imagery he uses to describe New York society are important, â€Å"conventions that tied things together and bound people down† – this rope imagery suggests the constricting nature of tradition and how it hods all subject to it captive. The irony betrayed by Edith Wharton's' tone in the presentation of the conscious thoughts of Newland Archer shows the slightly ridiculous nature of New York society. The situation Archer is in regarding his own defence of Countess Olenska is ironic, as he would be forced to condemn May should she ever behave similarly to her cousin. Another irony in the passage is the description of the state of typical New York high society marriages as having an â€Å"enviable ideal† when frankly they are in a pitiable state. Lefferts is described as the â€Å"high priest of form† when really he has no substance or true beliefs and is truly hypocritical, especially in regard to his treatment of Beaufort's affairs. The behaviour of Mrs Welland's simulated reluctance at the announcement of the engagement when really she expected it is sarcastically commented on showing the double standards between what is said and what is expected throughout New York society. Edith Wharton uses conflicting ideas within Newland Archer's mind to effectively present a man who is changing and developing into a deeper way of thinking about his own life and society in general.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Consumer Buying Behavior Comparison in Marketing Strategies Essay

In order to help creating new offerings, improving communication, organizing delivery and, eventually, increasing the sale. It is important to understand the consumer buying behavior from situational, personality and social aspects. This paper will briefly discuss the marketing strategies of two giant retail department stores, Walmart and Macy’s, in terms of customer buying behaviors. Macy’s atmospheric settings provide strong stimuli for its customers. First, every season, Macy’s puts up different window showcases to demonstrate its classic and artistic tastes. Also, different ambient colors are used in its shopping environment. These seasonal changes should be able to boost the sale of the fashion apparel. Secondly, Macy’s decorates different themes for different holidays, such as Easter, Mother’s day, Halloween, Christmas, etc. the gift shopping behaviors are likely induced by these themes. Thirdly, Macy’s always plays a comfort and light background music, customers would spend more time into shopping with a good mood as the text points out:† People’s moods temporarily affect their spending patterns† (Tanner, J., Raymond, M. & Schuster, C, 2001) On the other hand, it seems that Walmart pays a lot of attention to the shoppers’ personality factors. First, Walmart concentrates on the idea of â€Å"money saving†. Walking into a Walmart, the â€Å"Rollback† tags with two comparing prices are everywhere. The economical shoppers would compare more on the prices. Secondly, customers who prefer one stop shopping might find that Walmart, with its stock of food, toy, auto parts, etc, is more convenient than other shopping centers. Thirdly, Walmart shelves â€Å"as seen on TV† items and dollar items along the cashier to affect the shopping decisions. While waiting in the checkout line, customers are likely to pick up these items as they are categorized as low-involvement products. Moreover, social factors are also well considered by these two retail giants. In terms of social class, Macy’s focuses more on the middle-class families whereas Walmart targets on the customers with standard income. Wal-Mart exclusives have a mean household income of about $57K (Scarborough Research, 2005). Also, the products, Walmart is selling, represent the main stream of a geographical culture whereas Macy’s might satisfy some groups with special subculture interests such as high-end golf clubs or perfumes. In sum, consumer buying behavior is a very important element in the marketing strategies of a company. Situational, personality and social factors will influence the consumer buying behavior dramatically.

Buddhism and Judaism Essay

In this paper I will talk about the history, beliefs and traditions from two different religions. The western religion of Judaism and the eastern religion of Buddhism are the two religions, these two religions have some similarities and some contrasts but they also share some of their own beliefs. Buddhism is the way of life on ending suffering achievable through human’s endeavor. On the other hand,† Buddhism is one of the world’s oldest and most significant religions and it has spread though almost all of Asia. Buddhism was founded 500 years before Christ (BC) and was the first major religion in the world† (Prof. Barker PowerPoint). Its creator was a young prince from India named Siddhartha Gautama† (Molloy pg. 126). On the other hand, the Buddhism religion story began when â€Å"Siddhartha mother Queen Maya had a dream, on a night of the full moon. On that night of the full moon Queen Maya had supernatural dream about a special being known as the Buddha. The dream was about the Buddha being reborn as a human, the Buddha was going to be reborn as the child she was about to have Buddha. When Siddhartha Gautama was born, Maya felt ill after giving birth to Siddhartha and died a few days later†( Molloy pg. 127) On the other hand, when Siddhartha was born they noticed that he had promising sign of a great human being. â€Å"The mark that Siddhartha had mainly means that he will become a Buddha or a world emperor. His father was quite happy with the idea that he could become a world emperor. On the other hand, his father was try to prevent him from becoming a spiritual leader, by keeping him always from things that might send him into a religious direction Siddhartha was kept in one or another of their three palaces, and was prohibited from experiencing much of what ordinary folk might consider quite commonplace. He was not permitted to see the elderly, the sickly, the dead, or anyone who had devoted themselves to spiritual practices. Only beauty and health surrounded Siddhartha† (Video notes of Buddha part 1). Additionally, Siddhartha grew up and he trained in the arts of war. He married when he was 16 years old. But as Siddhartha continued living in the comfort of his palaces, he grew rising restless and curious about the world beyond the palace walls. He finally insisted that he be allowed to see his community and his lands but his father agreed that Siddhartha should still not see the kind of suffering. But one day Siddhartha violated his father rules and visited a close city and he observed the pain of ordinary life. He saw and was moved by what are called the four passing sights what is known as the four noble truths† (Molloy pg. 128). On his journey Siddhartha saw an old man and he learned the process of ageing and that there no stopping ageing. The second sight was when Siddhartha saw a sick man and he learned that everyone could get sick. The three sight that he saw was a dead body and he learned that everyone must die and suffering in life. The fourth sight was when he saw a monk and he learned that they give everything up just so they could end suffering. When Siddhartha return back to his palace he saw his new born son and his wife. He was thinking about the horrible things that he saw outside the palaces, Siddhartha wanted to find out his own answers to life suffering, so he abandoned his family†( video note of Buddha part 2).. Siddhartha went on a journey to find the answers of suffering, by using meditation and fasting and one day Siddhartha saw a musician fixing his guitar, he saw the guitar must be in the middle so the guitar could sound well. He decided he must follow the middle way; he had no idea how he could reach the middle way. In fact, Siddhartha had been traveling for six years and has experience suffering but he still couldn’t find the way to enlightenment. Siddhartha sat under a tree and told himself that he will not leave until reaching enlightenment (video note of Buddha part 3). † Bring the time Siddhartha spend under the tree, he found the prescription to reach Enlightenment and Nirvana that is called The Four Noble Truth (video note of Buddha part 4) The Four Noble Truth are chain about life (1) suffering exists; (2) it has a cause; (3) it has an end; and (4) there is a way to attain releases from suffering† (Michael Molloy pg. 34). Siddhartha was 35 year old when he past the four Janice to reach Enlightenment and Nirvana. Buddha dead by an illness called food poisoning at the age of 80 (video note of Buddha part 5). The religion of Buddhism is still practice in this day. Also Buddha’s teachings were not recognized until several years ago after his death. On the other hand, Judaism is also a system of life, but it focuses on interpersonal behavior and taking routine activities and educational them to something special. According to an overview of Jewish history, was created around 2000 before Common Era (BCE). Moses was one of the leaders of the Israelites, chief the Israelites out of the slave detention occurring in Egypt. On the other hand, Moses received the Law of God on Mount Sinai afterwards. In addition, the Israelites were direct to the promised-land by Joshua in which Samuel assisted in the construction of the kingdom and the new king becoming Saul. Also, Jerusalem was generated by King David while King David’s son, King Solomon had the first temple construct in Jerusalem after King David’s death. The temple was smashed in the70 Common Era (C.  E) â€Å"which brought about the end of the temple-based ceremonial religion and its community spreading of the Jewish individuals all through the world until 1929-1940s when the Holocaust was created† (Molloy pg. 290). On the other hand, the beliefs of the Judaism individuals start with 13 fundamental beliefs that have been accepted for several centuries such as: 1). God exists, 2). God is one and exceptional, 3). God is spiritual,4). God is perpetual, 5). Prayer is to be directed to God alone and to no other, 5). The words of the prophets are true, 6). Moses was the supreme of the prophets, and his prophecies are correct, 7). The Written Torah and Oral Torah were given to Mose, there will no other Torah, 8). God knows the thoughts and deeds of men, 9). God will recompense the good and discipline the wicked, 10). The Messiah will come, 11). His dead will be raise from the dead. 12). The belief of a Buddhist individual begin with an individual going through a cycle of birth, life, and death, this cycle is measured to be reincarnation and can occur many times until the individual resigned his or her needs and his or her self obtaining a status of nirvana. video note of Judaism). On the other hands, Buddhist individuals do not believe in a specific God, prayer, or the obligation for a savior, or eternal life after passing away. After the dead of Buddha, Buddhism has incorporated with local sacrosanct ritual traditions, viewpoints, and customs as the religion extended through Asia. On the other hand, an individual does not have to read the Tipitaka from beginning to end to be familiar with the four noble truths, which are: 1). There is pain, 2). There is reason for suffering 3).  There is termination of suffering 4). There is path leading to the cessation of pain ( Molloy pg. 134). As comparing Buddhism and Judaism several differences occur. For example, the belief that there is only one creator or God is by Jewish religion is not shared with Buddhist religion. Another difference is in the Doctrine that each respective religion follows, Jewish persons follow the Torah and Talmud as with the Buddhist persons following the Tipitaka. Both doctrines are significantly different within the teachings. An additional difference between the two religions is Judaism’s principle to life is to be submissive to God whereas Buddhism’s principle to life is to stop the persistent cycle of reincarnation and obtain Nirvana. On the other hand, Buddhism and Judaism have some similarities. For example, both religions have an authoritarian system that should be pursued but not required. In addition some similarities between Judaism and Buddhism are that Judaism follows the Ten Commandments whereas Buddhism follows the Eightfold Path, which is parallel to the Ten Commandments. Both religions also have structure created for worship their belief; however, their buildings have different names, Jewish individuals name their places of worship synagogues and Buddhist individuals, names their places of worship temples. Judaism and Buddhism individuals have some contrasts. For example, Judaism is a dietary support religion, they believe that a person has one life and they should live to the fullest, using that time to perfect the world. They do not focus on the eternal life, and in fact has no set doctrines concerning the eternal life. On the other hand, the Buddhism has no role for deity in accomplishing, they has no a set of right or wrong behaviors just suggestions, enlightenment is attained by individual endeavor and they believes in the reincarnation (Molloy, pg. 178). On the other hand, one of the Judaism traditions is the Bar/Bat Mitzvah; this tradition takes places when a young individual turns 13 for boys or 12 for girls. It is an event that takes place acknowledging he or she has taken the responsibility to continue to follow Jewish law and has become part of the adult Jewish population. In addition, the Jewish community has several holidays, but they are only 11 that are considered to be important in Judaism. The first was â€Å"the Passover, this holiday begins on the fifteenth day of the Jewish month of Nissan, also known as March/April; this holiday is referred to the walk of God over the houses of Jewish community as he was slaying the firstborn of Egypt also this holiday lasts seven days. During this holiday the community cannot eat grains such as: oats, barley or wheat, but they can eat unleavened bread† (Molloy pg. 04). Also, during these holidays they clean their homes literally from top to bottom. However, their celebration that consists fasting firstborn male children, than there is an exceptional meal made to remind them the objective of the holiday. The second holiday is the Yom Kippur this holiday is the Day of amends. During Yom Kippur holiday the Jewish needs to take a day of fasting and repentance to reconcile their soul with the Creator for t he mistakes they have made in the previous years. However this holiday encourages a Jewish individual to make penitence for the mistakes that he or she has committed against another. In contrast fasting from sunset to the evening previous to the Yom Kippur to sunset the day of Yom Kippur is also an obligation during this holiday. The third holiday is Rosh Hashanah meaning the Jewish New Year. This holiday take place between Labor Day and Columbus Day and this holiday is celebrated for a week long episode and is a manifestation of the past year and a time for resolutions to be made. In addition, the two most important holidays that most Jewish individuals are involving are the Rosh Hashanah and the Yom Kippur. This holiday usually take place twice-a-year (Molloy, pg. 327). On the other hand, Buddhism has different traditions, and they did some celebration too. For example, when an individual is converting in to a Jewish he or she has witnessed and is rising within Judaism. Also Buddhism has three immense branches that are acknowledged today such as: Theravada, Mahayana, and Vajrayana. Each branch appeared after a previous one, also and according to some people’s beliefs that crucial aspects of all three branches existed simultaneously. For example, Theravada means the way of the leaders. It is generally found in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia, and claim to have kept the knowledge, it is not likely. First, they passed down teachings in verbally, but finally they wrote them down. The monks beg for food day by day which means the monasteries are in towns, and come back to help their community. However, Mahayana Buddhists has their own set of scriptures, and various are called sutras. Their belief recommends reaching nirvana, not just the monks. The Mahayana Buddhists also worship bodhisattvas which is the one who have gained enlightenment and so possibly will enter nirvana. They decide to be reborn and to stay in the world to assist other people overcome their problems and gain enlightenment. Also Vajrayana Buddhist generally called Tantric Buddhist, are often linked with Tibetan Monks. They are ritualistic like the Mahayana Buddhists. All traditions distinguish the Buddha as an enlightened teacher who communal his insights in order to assist people end pain in agreement with the laws of Karma. Karma is one of the important principals of Buddhism; it’s believed that all is consistent, by having excellent karma is to be reincarnated into impressive content (Molloy pg. 164). Additionally, the Buddhists believe what you’re reincarnated into, is up to your karma in your ancient times life it might be an animal, insect even; male or female all depends on the karma. Consequently all living organisms have the equal importance; even killing a bug generates bad karma. Also Buddhism states that one may never be truly cheerful with hatred in their hearts. It also meaningful out that hatred comes from lack of knowledge, vengeance, disgust, and vengeance only becomes a never ending cycle, and does no all right in the end (Molloy pg. 138). The Buddhism community has some extraordinary holidays held throughout the year and some of the celebrations are related to the birthdays of Bodhisattvas in the Mahayana tradition or other important dates in the Buddhist calendar. However, the most significant celebration occurs every May on the night of the full moon, when Buddhist all over the world, celebrate the birth, Buddha and his enlightenment and Buddha and his death it has been celebrate over several years ago. It has become to be known as Buddha Day Also other important holidays for the Buddhism Community are the festivals, people go to the local temple or monastery and present food to the monks and take the Five Precepts and listen to a Dharma speak. In the afternoon, they hand out food to the poor to make merit and in the evening connect perhaps in a ceremony of circumambulation as sign and respect for the Buddha (Molloy pg. 146). In Conclusion, as focus on two religious (Buddhism and Judaism) I was able to understand the importance and the role of each religious and how this influences the life of each individual. Also, I think that is very interesting to have knowledge of other cultures and to understand their beliefs, traditions and culture.