Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Post a comment on this essay Read other users' comments Print this essay New Essays | Popular Essays | Submit an Essay Index: Social Issues: Abortion Abortion In Roe et al. v. Wade District Attorney of Dallas County (1973), one of the most controversial cases in recent history, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down all state laws that limit a woman's right to an abortion during the first three months of pregnancy. Justices Rehnquist and White dissented. Mr. Justice Blackmun delivered the opinion of the Court.... This Texas federal appeal and its Georgia companion, Doe v. Bolton, post, p. 179, present constitutional challenges to state criminal abortion legislation. The Texas statutes under attack here are typical of those that have been in effect in many States for approximately a century. The Georgia statutes, in contrast, have a modern cast and are a legislative product that, to an extent at least, obviously reflects the influences of recent attitudinal change, of advancing medical knowledge and techniques, and of new thinking about an old issue. We forthwith acknowledge our awareness of the sensitive and emotional nature of the abortion controversy, of the vigourous opposing views, even among physicians, and of the deep and seemingly absolute convictions that the subject inspires. One's philosophy, one's experiences, one's exposure to the raw edges of human existence, one's religious training, one's attitudes toward life and family and their values, and the moral standards one establishes and seeks to observe, are all likely to influence and to color one's thinking and conclusions about abortion.... The Texas statutes that concern us here are Arts. 1191-1194 and 1196 of the State's Penal Code. These make it a crime to procure an abortion, as therein defined, or to attempt one, except with respect to an abortion procured or attempted by medical advice for the purpose of saving the life of the mother. Similar statutes are in existence in a majority of the States. Texas first enacted a criminal abortion statute in 1854. Texas Laws 1854, c. 49, Sec. 1, set forth in 3 H. Gammel, Laws of Texas 1502 (1898). This was soon modified into language that has remained substantially unchanged to the present time.... Jane Roe, a single woman who was residing in Dallas County, Texas, instituted this federal action in March 1970 against the District Attorney of the county. She sought a declaratory judgment that the Texas criminal abortion statutes were unconstitutional on their face, and an injunction restraining the defendant from enforcing the statutes. Roe alleged that she was unmarried and pregnant; that she wished to terminate her pregnancy by an abortion performed by a competent, licensed physician, under safe, clinical conditions; that she was unable to get a legal abortion in Texas because her life did not appear to be threatened by the continuation of her pregnancy; and that she could not afford to travel to another jurisdiction in order to secure a legal abortion under safe conditions. She claimed that the Texas statutes were unconstitutionally vague and that they abridged her right of personal privacy, protected by the First, Fourth, Fifth, Ninth, and Fourteenth Amendments. By an amendment to her complaint Roe purported to sue on behalf of herself and all other women similarly situated.... We are next confronted with issues of justiciability, standing, and abstention. Have Roe and the Does established that personal stake in the outcome of the controversy, Baker v. Carr, 369 U.S. 186, 204 (1962), that insures that the dispute sought to be adjudicated will be presented in an adversary context and in a form historically viewed as capable of judicial resolution,... The usual rule in federal cases is that an actual controversy must exist at stages of appellate or certiorari review, and not simply at the date the action is initiated... But when, as here, pregnancy is a significant fact in the litigation, the normal 266-day human gestation period is so short that the pregnancy will come to term before the usual appellate process is complete. If that termination makes a case moot, pregnancy litigation seldom will survive much beyond the trial stage, and appellate review will be effectively denied. Our law should not be that rigid.... We, therefore, agree with the District Court that Jane Roe had standing to undertake this litigation, that she presented a justiciable controversy, and that the termination of her 1970 pregnancy has not rendered her case moot.... The principal thrust of appellant's attack on the Texas statutes is that they improperly invade a right, said to be possessed by the pregnant woman,
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Giotto di Bondone Essays Giotto di Bondone Paper Giotto di Bondone Paper Giotto di Bondone was born at Vespignano, near Florence, in 1276. He died at Florence on January 8, 1337. The son of a peasant, he became the pupil of Cimabue, then later, the head at Florence of a celebrated school of painters. His works include twenty-eight frescoes in the aisle of the upper church of S. Francis dAssisi, under those by Cimabue; the frescoes on the ceilings of the lower church of S. Francesco dAssisi, and an altarpiece (according to Vas ri the most completely executed of all his works); thirty-eight frescoes in the Capella dellArena at Padua; the frescoes of four chapels in Santa Croce, Florence, two of which have been destroyed; and a very small number of genuine panel-pictures. The extant public record of GiottoÃ¢â¬â¢s life is sparse but never-the-less telling. It reveals a personality whose range of interests and abilities is startling. It charts the course of a man who successfully moved and operated in the widely divergent worlds of business, theology and art. The public record also describes a man who, in a time when political overtones colored all aspects of society, not only survived but flourished. Was he therefore, as some have claimed, a voice of his time or was he, as others argue, a divinely inspired prophet of the future? A prophet is usually understood to be one who stands outside of society calling attention in a loud and often strident voice to that which is amiss in the culture, yet the record shows Giotto to be a man who was accepted by his peers, befriended by the elite, honored for his achievements and rewarded financially for his accomplishments. : While there is no denying that Giottos art was profoundly influenced by the Franciscan movement with its emphasis on recognizing the human in Christ and the divine in man, (Ferguson, 300) the records which give us glimpses into Giottos personal life, show that the Franciscan call to poverty was not one that he lived out in his life. Lest this definition of a prophet relegate Giotto by default to the category of a man of his time, from the critical perspective, it would be a mistake to anchor Giotto in either of these categories for what we know of him breaks the hard, brittle molds. Giotto di Bondone is an enigma, a contradiction dispelling the mythical stereotypes. Often called the father of Western painting, Giotto created a great revolution in painting. Although he remained faithful to some principles of his tradition, his source of style is most likely from the Roman school of painting which is characterized by a great interest in the sculptural rendering of form (Horst de la Croix and Tansey, 537). For instance, Giottos Paduan frescoes contained several characteristics new to that period. First, the beginning of spatial perspective provided a shallow space where figures could be placed to the front, middle or rear realistically. Secondly, figures were drawn with three divisional qualities of roundness and weight. Third, there was an overall surface pattern which emphasized the main features of the action, such as the direction of movement of figures against a partially realistic landscape. Finally, there was a continued awareness of the allegorical, symbolic or figural significance of the subjects of the painting (Holms, 210). Traditionally, medieval art was an art of copyists, of the transcription of traditional picture cycles into a more or less individual idiom (Gombrich, 150); however, in all styles the artist has to rely on a vocabulary of forms, and that it is the knowledge of this vocabulary rather than a knowledge of things that distinguishes the skilled from the unskilled artist. What is more, it remains important that there exists a natural pull toward the schematic which artists such as Giotto succeeded in overcoming (Gombrich, 293). In Italy, the new developments in art have been traced to panel-paintings and to the frescoes and other such monumental forms of art: If the most decisive moment in the history of Western painting had to be pinpointed to one day and one place, it could be the day in Padua more than six and a half centuries ago when Giotto rinsed out his brushes and took a last look around at the cycle of frescoes he had just completed for a chapel. In the lower section of the fresco on the chapels entrance wall, where the Last Judgement is pictured, Giotto makes clear that the building is a placative gift (Canaday, 6). In Giottos fresco cycles framed scenes are linked much as Dante joined the cantos in his epic poem, the Divina Comedia. Also, the narrative style demanded a convincing setting and Giottos perspective represented a method of depicting a scene from a certain vantage point. The narrative style was developed by the fourteenth century artist in order to depict a greater naturalness and intensified dramatic expression in his painting and to bring the heavenly subjects within the realm of understandable human feeling (Canaday, 5). The best early example of this style is Giottos fresco paintings in the Arena Chapel in Padua where the individual scenes on the chapel walls provide a majestic progression of the story from one section to the next with each incident conceived in its own emotional air just as a unit in a symphonyÃ¢â¬ (Canaday, 6). The story is told with technical realism, tenderness and a passion that involves the viewers as vicarious participants. The human drama which has been elevated to a noble scale, purifies us through pity, if not through terrorÃ¢â¬ (Canaday, 12). Because of this, Giotto is called the first Renaissance artist in that he humanized the narration of the Christian story and in doing so, opened a tradition of reference to nature. As a great artist also in the classical tradition, he ennobled man in his physical being as a vessel of the intellect and the spiritÃ¢â¬ (Canaday, 12).
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Methodology - Essay Example Holsti (1968, p. 608) defines content analysis as Ã¢â¬Å"any technique for making inferences by systematically and objectively identifying special characteristics of messagesÃ¢â¬ . The later definition is broad and does not restricted content analysis to the domain of textual analysis. However, to allow for replication, content analysis technique can only be used on data that are durable in nature. Content analysis technique allows a researcher to test theoretical issues in order to enhance understanding of the data (Elo & Kynga 2008). It is possible to sieve words into fewer content related categories using content analysis. Cavanagh (1997) notes that when classified into the same categories, words, and phrases share the same meaning. According to GAO (1996), content analysis is important because it enables researchers to sift easily through large amounts of data. Weber (1990) noted that this technique can be used to allow for the description and discovery of the focus of individual, group, institutional, or social attention. The technique further allows inferences that can be later corroborated through other methods of data collection be made. As Krippendorff (2004) notes that "content analysis research is motivated by the search for techniques to infer from symbolic data what would be either too costly, no longer possible, or too obtrusive by the use of other techniques" (p . 51). Content analysis is a method that can be used in a number of disciples to study a number of issues. For instance in marketing, the method can be a very powerful tool in studying brand personalities of companies. A number of authors in marketing have used this method. These include Douglas & Mills (2006) who did a web content analysis of logging brand personality online using AarkerÃ¢â¬â¢s (1997) brand personality framework. Stemler (2001) noted that content analysis can be used to determine authorship. For example, he noted that Mosteller
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Research paper - Essay Example There are two ways to classify fuels. Firstly, on the basis of the physical state they exist in, either being solid, liquid or gas and secondly, how they are obtained: either naturally or are manufactured. Fuels existing naturally include Wood, Coal, Petroleum and Natural gas whereas manufactured fuels include Coke, Charcoal, Alcohols and Water gas to name a few (Types of Fuels and Their Characteristics 37-38). Solid fuels for example Coal have been widely used throughout and have a number of advantages. Their transportation is easy and also there is no risk of a spontaneous explosion. They also do not possess a very high temperature for ignition. However, their content of ash is great which is harmful for the environment (Types of Fuels and Their Characteristics 38). Around 80% of the coal is used for generating electricity. It is also utilized in furnaces for steel production. The refined coal is called Ã¢â¬ËcokeÃ¢â¬â¢ and it does not pollute the environment. When coal is heated in the absence of the air, coal tar and coal gas are removed which are its impurities (Walker 11). Out of all the fossil fuels, coal has the highest number of reserves around the world and is obtained through mining. Huge number of Ã¢â¬Ëcoal basinsÃ¢â¬â¢ are present in the Northern hemisphere of the Earth, like in the countries England, China and Australia to be specific (Spliethoff 25). The liquid fuels like Petroleum can be classified as natural or crude oils and also as manufactured or artificial oils. The advantages of liquid fuels include easy storage and transport, requirement of less space and no production of dust or ash upon heating. On the other hand their use carries some disadvantages as well. They give off a bad odor, special tanks are required for their transportation and the extremely inflammable and volatile nature of these liquids pose great hazards (Types of Fuels and Their Characteristics
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Organizational Behavior - Essay Example The study of organizational behavior is extremely important as it plays a major role in determining the efficiency and effectiveness level of employees. Interpersonal skills for managers For managers in organizations, it is extremely vital that they develop strong interpersonal skills. Good interpersonal skills of managers may allow them to lead their employees in a better way and also effectively deal with the organizational related matters. Managers are to make decisions effectively and also have to assign the right task to the right employee. The work to be handled properly in an organization is the responsibility of the manager (Robbins and Judge, 2009). Managers need to develop good communication skills so that they can clearly get their message across the entire organization and all the subordinates that are working under the organization. Management Functions The management functions in an organization are planning, controlling, leading and organizing. The managers have to pla n the work activities and set goals for each task so that the employees perform the work accordingly. While planning, managers have to ensure all activities are coordinated. The planning stage of the organization is one of the most critical stages as managers need to understand the entire situation and then plan the schedule of the work processes accordingly. In the leading function, managers have to direct the employees towards the right path of performing work and also work on resolving conflicts for the employees. The leading stage for managers is highly important as well as employees need to be guided towards the right direction at all times without any problems so that they perform their work accordingly. The controlling function focuses on comparing the set goals with those that have been achieved and monitor constantly that all tasks are being completed on time (Robbins and Judge, 2009). Controlling of employees is needed by managers at all times. s Henry MintzbergÃ¢â¬â¢s M anagerial Roles There are many theorists that have suggested theories related to organizational behavior. Henry Mintzberg has defined the managerial roles in an organization that is categorized under three headings. They are the interpersonal roles, the informational roles and the decisional roles. Under the Interpersonal roles category, the managers have to possess the figurehead, leader and liaison characteristics to successfully perform this role. Managers need to possess all the skills to deal with unexpected situations and also with difficult employees (Robbins and Judge, 2009). In the informational roles category, the manager performs the activities of monitor, disseminator, and spokesperson. Managers need to ensure that they are in total control of the activities that are under their supervision. They need to have complete knowledge about the work and be in a strong position to guide their employees accordingly as and when required. In the decisional roles category, the manag er has to perform the roles of entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, and negotiator. Managers need to possess conflict handling abilities as conflicts and stress related situations tend to be a common issue in all organizations. Employees may lose their patience at times and may spoil the work processes. Managers need to be good negotiators and strong leaders to handle all types of behavior and attitudes of employees (Robbins and Judge, 2009). KatzÃ¢â¬â¢s Essential Management Skills Katz essential management skills state that managers should have the technical skills, the human skills and the conceptual skills. In technical skills,
Friday, November 15, 2019
An Overview Of Employee Suggestion Schemes Commerce Essay Innovations are becoming increasingly important for organizations to remain competitive in the dynamic business environment. Employee Suggestions Systems plays a key role for organizations wishing to become more innovative. It is a useful tool used in the organization to elicit employees creative ideas. Over the past decades, suggestion schemes have been studied from many perspectives. The objective of this paper is to present the history and evolution of suggestion schemes, from their early beginnings to sophisticated computer based systems that are widely popular in many countries. We start by discussing the origins of suggestion systems, followed by discussing how they have evolved over the years, and understand a typical process involved in suggestion system. We would like to discuss the future model of suggestion system that can sustain and contribute significantly towards the success of the organizations. Through a literature review, we describe the existing research on suggest ion schemes to understand the critical drivers and barriers for the success of the suggestion schemes. This paper also cites and illustrates the well-known suggestion systems used by UAE organizations and their benefits. The literature, while extolling the many virtues of suggestion programs makes it clear that achieving the expected results from the programs is quite challenging as it involves organizational as well individual level factors and needs to focus on creativity and as well transformation of the creativity into innovations. The paper provides the list of driver and barriers to suggestion schemes mainly stemming from creativity, innovation and suggestion system literatures. The suggestion making and suggestion implementation are two crucial stages and both are equally important for the success of the scheme and are influenced by a number of factors. Organizations must therefore identify these critical factors to nurture both these stages. The schemes can be applied in any sector to elicit employee creative ideas but must have a formal mechanism to action this. Managers need to be aware critical success factors that are essential for the success of the schemes. It is clear that suggestion schemes will not yield results without the active involvement of everyone in the organization, and the required resources and support from top management. The future of suggestion scheme is bright as a tool for fueling innovation. Organizations need to recognize and evaluate their schemes to yield its potential benefits. There need to be sustainability in suggestion schemes. Organizations need to assess their schemes to recognize if right conditions exist for their sche mes to flourish. This paper should be of value to practitioners of suggestion schemes and to academics who are interested in knowing how this program has evolved, and where it is today and what future it holds. Although much research has been conducted on identifying these critical success factors to the authors knowledge, little focus has been directed towards sustenance of the suggestion system. This paper makes the contribution for identifying the research gap in the suggestion schemes and has assimilated the existing knowledge on suggestion systems to provide a quick run through to the field and has extended the search for drivers and barriers to suggestion scheme from creativity and innovation literature. Key Words: Employee, Suggestion System, Creativity, Innovation, Employee Involvement, Ideas Management Introduction An Employee Suggestion Scheme (ESS) is described as a formalized mechanism that encourages employees to contribute constructive ideas for improving the organization in which they work (Milner et al., 1995). Another elaborate definition explains suggestion schemes elicit suggestions from employees, classify them, and dispatch them to experts for evaluation (Cooley et al., 2001). After this, the suggestion might be adopted, in which case the suggestion maker will be rewarded. But even if a suggestion is rejected, the suggestion maker may still be rewarded with a token gift. So the managers or dedicated committees evaluate the suggestions and implement the one that works (Chaneski, 2006). The reward may range from a certificate to a reward commensurate with the savings generated by the suggestion. Researchers in this area explain that the suggestion scheme is a mechanism or a tool that fosters creativity, elicits untapped reservoirs of ideas and fuels both product or process innovations , triggers a work place improvement, improves process effectiveness, saves money or helps generate new revenue and increases organizational commitment and accountability among employees (Carrier,1998; Buech et al., 2010; Fairbank and William,2001; 96. Townsend,2009;Islam, 2007;Arthur et al., 2010 Lloyd,1996). Thus they are structured to have many goals and purposes (Kanna et al., 2005). There are others who view suggestion systems as mechanism to improve quality as well (Islam, 2007; Kanna et al., 2005). It is a known fact that no one would know the job, its specific processes( Darragh -Jeromos, 2005) better than the employees themselves as they are on the shop floor and are experiencing the advantages of what they are doing(Du plessis et al., 2008). Therefore, the suggestion scheme can be an advantageous way to gather suggestions in the work place by fostering this concept and taping into all employee creativity (Darragh-Jeromo, 2005). Over the past decades, suggestion schemes have been studied from many perspectives. In this paper, our objective is to present the history and evolution of suggestion schemes, from their early beginnings to sophisticated computer based systems that are widely popular in many countries. We start by discussing the origins of the suggestion system, followed by how it has evolved over the years, and understand a typical process involved in the suggestion system. Through a literature review, we describe the existing research on suggestion schemes in order to understand the critical drivers and barriers for the success of suggestion schemes. This paper also identifies future research opportunities in this field. The History and Evolution of the Suggestion Schemes In 1721, Yoshimune Tokugawa, the 8th Shogun, placed a box called Meyasubako at the entrance of the Edo Castle for written suggestions from his subjects (Arif et al., 2010). Although this is the most basic system known, an industrialized suggestion systems origin traces back to the 19th century. In 1880, William Denny, a Scottish shipbuilder asked his employees to offer suggestions in order to build ships in better ways (Islam 2007). Following this, the Kodak company became pioneer in this endeavor with its program being introduced in 1896 (Carrier, 1998). Industry associations, such as the Employee Involvement Association (EIA), then came into existence and they have contributed greatly to the increased formalization, objectivity, and professionalism of suggestion programs (Townsend,2009). Formerly, the National Association of Suggestion Systems, the EIA has instituted educational, statistical, and professional development programs to raise the bar of best practices in the encouragem ent, evaluation, development, and implementation of ideas that add value to their organizations. The IdeasUK, UKs foremost association for the promotion of employee involvement programmes was founded in 1987, its prime purpose being to assist organizations in both the public and private sector, an organization with more than 100 members worldwide. On the other hand in Japan the program was well known as the Kaizan Program. While Kaizen-oriented suggestion systems are primarily interested in generating many small improvements, western suggestion systems encourage the pursuit of innovation (Ohly et al., 2006). Simultaneously, suggestion schemes also became popular in many countries and they have a considerable history that includes USA, Europe, Asia and the Middle East (Cooley et al., 2001). The well-known suggestion schemes have been in existence for over 60 years and companies like Japans Toyotas and Indias Tata Steel Mill represent a usage of these historic systems. Around the 1990s suggestion schemes became increasingly popular. In 1994, one employee suggestion alone saved British Gas Ã £4.4 million. The research around 1996 reported that the world class suggestion systems are exceeding 40 ideas per person annually, with greater than 80 percent implementation rates and high levels of participation (Savageau, 1996). The ETA 2004 annual suggestion program provided statistics from 41 of its member organizations in the United States. From this limited sample, a total of more than $811 million in savings and other benefits were realized as a result of employee suggestion programs (Townsend,2009). The latest 2009 Annual Survey of IdeasUK highlighted the following benefits amongst their membership organizations such as Boots, HSBC, Ministry of Defence and Dubai Aluminum. Cost savings of over Ã £100m with the average implemented idea worth Ã £1,400.00. Return on Investment of at least 5:1. Employee involvement increased with average participation rates of 28% The trend of cost savings due to employee suggestions continues till today. The Existing Research on Suggestion Systems An illustration of a formal process involved in the suggestion schemes Suggestions systems have come a long way (Arif et al., 2010) transiting from anonymous postboxes (Crail, 2006) or suggestion box to a sophisticated computer based electronic suggestion system (Fairbank and William 2001; Ahmed, 2009). The suggestion system is a process of two or more stages comprising mainly the suggestion making, the evaluation and implementation of the idea (Van and Ende, 2002; Prathur and Turrel, 2002; Lipponen et al., 2008; Bakker et al., 2006; Marx, 1995;Griffiths et al., 2006). There has been a negligence of research on the initial ideas generation phase that precedes the innovation, mainly because one major group of researchers who consider organizational creativity is fostered through the personal characteristics and motivations of creative individuals turned its attention to context and organizational factors(Carrier,1998). However the common process involved in the suggestion management system is depicted in fig 1: Description: http://www.apo-tokyo.org/productivity/pmtt_004b.jpg In recent times the suggestion schemes have also been known as Idea Capture Systems or Idea Management Systems. Leach (2006) claims that the Idea capture system can fall into four categories: Centralized suggestion schemes, De-centralized suggestion schemes, Work based systems Informal systems. Literature shows that the subject of suggestion schemes is multidisciplinary. Broadly the theoretical base for suggestion schemes emerges from the literature on creativity and innovation. This is mainly because the researchers describe suggestion systems as tools that stimulate creativity or innovation (Carrier,1998). Innovation begins with creative ideas (Amabile et al., 1996) and thus creativity and innovation are interlinked and the process in the suggestion system is mainly focused on eliciting the employees creative ideas and implementing them to fuel innovations. The main focus of the research then goes to the factors that trigger creativity and innovation. Researchers have examined these factors from three points of views (Buech et al.,2010) The first considers work environment. A second stream of research, focusing on the features of suggestion systems, weighs the influence of feedback about suggestions, management support of the system and rewards for successful suggestions, the third deals with the characteristics of the individuals. The creativity and innovation literature also highlights these contextual, organizational and individual factors that foster creativity and innovation but it is also evident that the contextual factors that foster creativity and innovation would also foster the suggestion making as well (Ohly et al.,2006). The factors cited to be drivers to creativity, suggestion system and innovation are identified below. Factors fostering Suggestion Making, Creativity and Innovation A good suggestion scheme should play a vital role in improving communication and promoting and enhancing the sense of common purpose (McConville, 1990). People need social, informational, and economic support to be able to create something new (Majdar, 2005). The creativity in an organizational context emerges from a process of sharing information with other people within the organization (Bakker et al., 2006). Although the social networking alone cannot be considered as an important source of information for innovation(Bigliardi et al., 2009), the high quality social exchange relationships (Kudisch, 2006), social influences(Klijn et al., 2010),collaboration(BjÃ ¶rklund,2010; Fairbank et al.,2001), and diverse group exchanges(Shalley et al.,2004) can stimulate employee creativity. Even in a field where innovation is essential, most of the acute challenges do not concern innovation skills, but rather the organizational context of innovation the work communities culture, habits, and practices (BjÃ ¶rklund, 2010). Creativity and innovation will only be sporadic occurrences and will not thrive without a supportive environment and culture (Malaviya Wadhwa, 2005;Amabile et al.,1996). Every organization has its own culture and needs and its suggestion system should be molded around that (Marx, 1995). The organization structure often hinders tacit knowledge sharing by establishing wrong authorities (Alwis et al., 2008). Several studies have shown how certain organizational structures facilitate the creation of new products and processes, especially in relation to fast changing environments (Lam,2010). Organization structures have to be modified in different industries so that the organizational structure of a company or a department supports transfer and transmission of tacit knowledge in the best way (Alwis et al., 2008). Management practices of the organization play a role in the success of the suggestion programs (Carrier, 1998). Management has a responsibility to satisfy the need for employee participation and they are required to create a culture which is supportive of employee involvement in the decisions which affect their work (Reychav et al., 2010). Senior management ought to demonstrate their faith in the scheme, promote and support it and encourage all managers to view it as a positive force for continuous improvement (McConville, 1990). Management must get actively involved by creating the opportunities for employees to submit their ideas, get those ideas properly evaluated, give recognition when it is due and implement them as soon as possible (Du plessis, 2008). Converting managers, particularly those in the middle is crucial (McConville,1990). Undoubtly, people will produce creative work when they perceive for example that the management is required to encourage (Amabile et al., 1996). T herefore a visible commitment from top management can encourage employee active participation in the scheme. Studies have shown that a traditional, autocratic management style results in low levels of employee engagement and motivation (Hayward, 2010). Empowering leadership has the capacity to positively influence employee psychological empowerment -an element of importance in affecting creative outcome (Zhang, 2010). On the other hand leadership styles that include threats, intimidation, and coercive tactics appear to universally discourage creative behavior on the part of employees (Anderson et al., 2008). The coworker support (Madjar,2008;Majdar 2005;Shalley et al.,2004;Arif et al., 2010) is another important element that can trigger employees to make suggestions. Tatter (1975) notes, the best way to kill a system are to let an idea remain in limbo for four, five or six months. The goal should be to completely process a suggestion in about 30 days and in no more than 60 days. To handle employee creativity effectively, it is important to organize the process of idea extraction to idea fo llow-up properly, otherwise employees will not be motivated to put their ideas forward and many ideas will be lost (Van Ende, 2002). The knowledge possessed by individual employees can only lead to a firm competitive advantage if employees have the motivation and opportunity to share and utilize their individual knowledge in ways that benefit the organization (Arthur et al., 2005). Therefore the development of an infrastructure (Marx 1995) with simple methods (Hultgren, 2008) for submitting suggestions (McConville, 1990) is a key aspect of the suggestion scheme. The companies lack of action on suggestions provided by non-managerial employees can de-motivate employees from participating in employee relation programs (Cho and Erdum 2006). Fairbank (2003) argues the formal Employee suggestion Management systems(ESMS)s are superior to the stereotypical suggestion box because they make it easier for employees to submit ideas that will eventually be implemented, provide a transparent pro cess for evaluating the suggestions, and generate timely feedback regarding the fate of the suggestions and any rewards they earn. Such a system can help to monitor the progress of the scheme on a regular basis (Hultgren, 2008). The more comfortable employees are with the format, the more suggestions will be received, and the more money will be saved (Mishra, 1994). Good ideas can come from anyone, at any level, any place, anytime (McConville, 1990; Majdar ,2005). Therefore a suggestion scheme should make all its employees at all levels eligible to participate (McConville, 1990; Lloyd, 1996). The involvement can be increased if employees develop a sense of belonging to the organization (Cruz et al., 2009). Empowerment is necessary so that the workers evaluate their own ideas before making a suggestion, as suggesting many ideas do not necessarily mean greater cost reduction and at the same time, it would be an added cost to process and may cause delays (Wynder, 2008). The biggest obstacles in the suggestion cycle lie in the area of review, evaluation and guidance. Insensitive comments of proposal reviewers can sometime kill an employees improvement initiative (Neagoe et al., 2009). When the review, evaluation and guidance aspect of the system functions properly, it can be a great motivating force that will attract many excellent proposals (Neagoe et al., 2009). If ideas are made public, these ideas, good and bad, could have started other creative ideas elsewhere in the organization (Stenmark, 2000). A modern well-managed suggestion scheme lies not in the immediate financial returns, but in the contribution made to achieving greater involvement and team- work (McConville,1990). Creative ideas are more often the product of social interaction and influence than of periods of thinking in isolation (Majdar, 2005) The cash rewards and recognition alone will not make a suggestion system successful (Strane,2000). Employee morale should be boosted by creating success stories and measuring the success of the scheme through the implementation of ideas (Marx, 1995; Hultgren, 2008; Lloyd, 1996; Cho Erdem 2006). A suggestion system is clearly a money saver in an organization (Mishra, 1994). There needs to be various strategies in place to avoid employee boredom and to consider the life cycle of the system, employees must be rewarded not only with tangible but also intangible benefits (Ahmed 2009). Incentives are important for employees to feel that submission of their useable ideas will be rewarded (Du plessis et al., 2008). It was also found that the volume of employee suggestions over time will be positively related to the amount of payout (Arthur et al., 2010). Depending on the attention given to advertising the schemes and how participation is rewarded, organizations could improve the return on the idea capture system (Leach et al., 2006). Individuals have the greatest possible number of characteristics that positively influence their creative performance (MuÃ ±oz-Doyague, 2008). Keeping workers intrinsically motivated is the key part for improving creativity and performance. No doubt, intrinsic motivation is a universally important and substantial factor (Suh et al.,2008). Sending individuals to state-of- the-art seminars, training programs, and conferences as a reward for their creativity might increase the positive impact (Griffiths-hemans et al., 2006). This will be the energy of renewal and the drive to a successful future. The Barriers to suggestion systems Research also reports on barriers that could hinder the success of the suggestion scheme. They are mainly cited as work load pressure, task reutilization, task standardization, unsupportive climate, aversive leadership, co-worker mistrust, coworker incompetence, budget problems, impractical idea, technical issues, competition, delay in assessment, controlled supervision, lack of support, fear of evaluation, free riding, lack of self confidence, low commitment to organization and system, rigid rules,self-interest, challenge of the work and resistance from middle managers(Alwis Hartmann 2008;Amabile et al.,1996;Anderson Veillette 2008;Bakker et al., 2006;Carreir 1998; Oldham and Cummings 1996;Lyold 1999;Mclean 2005;McConville 1990;Toubia,2006;Sadi,2008;Wong Pang Finally, the existing research also evidences that although the interest and practice in Continuous Improvement (CI) are widespread in many organizations, many of them have major problems in sustaining success in their CI programs (Rapp and Eklund, 2007),). Many organizations are faced with problems associated with both the implementation and sustainability of their CI programs. There is no study which gives account of the design features for frequency of feedback or extent to publicity (Leach,2006).Despite the increasing popularity of the gain sharing plans, evidence for their effectiveness has remained mixed(Arthur et al., 2010). Suggestion systems should not exist primarily as a means to recognize employees only (Darragh Jeromos 2005) but to utilize the scheme to its fullest extent. So a well designed system will accomplish both these goals resulting in tangible as well as intangible benefits (Ahmed, 2009). Overall suggestion system is a great mechanism that involves individual a nd teams in improving the organization performance (Crail, 2006) and they have a strong and significant effect on both process and product innovation (Townsend, 2009). It perfectly matches todays market need to deal with knowledge based workers who expect their involvement to be recognized and utilization of their skills to its fullest (Kesting et al., 2010). # Indicators Source 1 Supervisory encouragement Mclean 2005;Marx 1995;Shalley Gilson 2004;Tatter 1975;Frese et al 1999;Lloyd 1996;Ohly et al 2006;Arif et al 2010;Hardin 1964 2 Co worker support Madjar 2008;Majdar 2005;Shalley Gilson 2004;Arif et al 2010 3 Top Mgt Support Huang Farh 2009.;Amabile et al 2004;Carreir 1998;Egan 2005;Jong Hartog 2007;Marx 1995;McConville 1990;Du plessis 2008;Ahmed 2009;Mishara 1994;Powell 2008;Prather Turrell;Rice 2009;Zhang 2010;Khairuzzaman;Bell 1997 ;Unsworth 2005;Hayward 2010. 4 organizational Encouragement Fairbank and Williams 2001;Alves et al 2007;Ahmed 1998;Alwis Hartmann 2008 Amabile et al 1996;Arthur Kim 2005;BjÃ ¶rklund 2010;Darragh-Jeromos 2005;Ellonen et al., 2008;Griffiths-hemans Grover 2006;Janssen, O., 2004;Klijn Tomic 2010;Kudisch 2006;Neagoe Klein 2009;Mclean 2005;Malaviya, P., 2005;McConville 1990;Powell 2008;Prather Turrell; Recht Wildero ,1998;Shalley Gilson 2004;Al-Alawi et al 2007;Rietzschel 2008;Zhou George(2001);Stranne 1964;Van Ende 2002;Bell 1997 ;Khairuzzaman;Bigliardi Dormio 2009 5 Communication Alves et al 2007;Aoki 2008;Arthur et al 2010.;Binnewies et al 2007;BjÃ ¶rklund 2010.Klijn Tomic 2010;Kudisch 2006;Madjar 2008;Majdar 2005;Madjar 2008;Majdar 2005;McConville 1990;Ahmed 2009; Recht Wildero ,1998;Shalley Gilson 2004;Tatter 1975;Khairuzzaman;Monge ;Al-Alawi et al 2007;Clark 2009;Fairbank and Williams 2001;Stranne 1964 6 Evaluation Egan 2005; Rietzschel 2008;Neagoe Klein 2009;Marx 1995;McConville 1990;Ahmed 2009;Powell 2008;Tatter 1975;Van Ende 2002;Hultgren 2008;Lloyd 1996;Winter 2009;Sarri et al ,2010;Fairbank and Williams 2001. 7 Publicity Reuter 1976;Mishara 1994;Tatter 1975;Fairbank and Williams 2001. Kudisch 2006;Neagoe Klein 2009;Leach et al 2006;Marx 1995;McConville 1990;Prather Turrell;Lloyd 1996;Winter 2009;Crail 2007 8 ResourcesÃ Alves et al 2007;Amabile et al 1996;Griffiths-hemans Grover 2006;Klijn Tomic 2010;Mclean 2005;McConville 1990;Shalley Gilson 2004;Van Ende 2002;Lloyd 1996;Bigliardi Dormio 2009;Clark 2009 9 Rewards Lloyd 1996; Klijn Tomic 2010;Arthur Kim 2005;Arthur et al 2010. ;Bartol Srivastava 2002;Darragh-Jeromos 2005;Neagoe Klein 2009;Leach et al 2006;Lloyd.1999;Marx 1995;McConville 1990;Du plessis 2008;Ahmed 2009;Mishara 1994;Rapp and Eklund 2007;Rice 2009;Shalley Gilson 2004;Tatter 1975;Teglborg-Lefevre, a.C., 2010;Van Ende 2002;Arif et al 2010;Bell 1997 ;Frese et al 1999;Winter 2009;Al-Alawi et al 2007;Baird Wang 2010;Bartol Srivastava 2002;Clark 2009;Crail 2007;Rietzschel(2008);Suh Shin 2008. ;Lyold 1999 10 Training Paulus 2008;Tatter 1975;Baird Wang 2010;Stranne 1964;Birdi 2005 11 Effective simple System Reuter 1976;Lloyd 1996 Arthur Kim 2005;Lloyd 1999;Marx 1995;McConville 1990;Fairbank 2003;Mishara 1994;Prather Turrell;Rapp and Eklund 2007;Tatter1975;Van Ende 2002;Arif et al 2010;Frese et al 1999;Hultgren 2008; Winter 2009;Bigliardi Dormio 2009;Clark 2009;Fairbank and Williams 2001;Lyold 1999;Bassadur 1992;Hultgren 2008 12 feedback Cho Erdem 2006 ;Bakker et al 2006 ;Buech et al 2010;Leach et al 2006;Mishara 1994;Powell 2008;Rapp and Eklund 2007;Arif et al 2010;Hultgren 2008;Fairbank and Williams 2001. ;Stranne 1964;Bassadur 1992;Van Ende 2002;Du plessis 2008 13 Implementation of suggestion Marx 1995;McConville 1990;Hultgren 2008;Lloyd 1996;Cho Erdem 2006 14 Job factors Amabile et al 1996;Anderson Veillette 2008. ;BjÃ ¶rklund 2010.;Buech et al 2010;Griffiths-hemans Grover 2006;Hirst 2009;Powell 2008;Rego et al 2009;Shalley Gilson 2004;Shalley Gilson 2004;Frese et al 1999;Axtell et al 2000;MuÃ ±oz-Doyague et al( 2008);Unsworth 2005;Cruz et al 2009;de Jong den Hartog 2010. 15 Empowerment Recht Wildero ,1998;Lipponen et al 2008;Mclean 2005;Powell 2008;Axtell et al 2000;de Jong den Hartog 2010; Unsworth 2005 16 Expertise Bantel Jackson 1989;BjÃ ¶rklund 2010;Griffiths-hemans Grover 2006;Klijn Tomic 2010;Madjar 2008;Majdar 2005;Verworn 2009;Bigliardi Dormio 2009 17 Individual attributes and self efficacy Huang Farh 2009.;Egan 2005;Lipponen et al 2008;Verworn 2009;Frese et al 1999;Axtell et al 2000;Aoki 2008.; Lipponen et al 2008;Binnewies et al 2007;BjÃ ¶rklund 2010. ;Griffiths-hemans Grover 2006 ;Klijn Tomic 2010 ;Lipponen et al 2008;Litchfield 2008;Malaviya, P., 2005;Powell 2008; Recht Wildero ,1998;Shalley Gilson 2004;Verworn 2009;Janssen 2004;Litchfield 2008;Cruz et al 2009;Huang Farh 2009.;Aoki 2008.;Arthur et al 2010. ;BjÃ ¶rklund 2010.;Darragh-Jeromos 2005;Egan 2005;MuÃ ±oz-Doyague 2008 18 job control Anderson Veillette(2008);Mclean, L.D., 2005;Sadi (2008);Anderson Veillette(2008) Wong Pang (2003);Neagoe, L.N. Klein, V.M., 2009;McConville(1990) 19 Organizational impediments Stenmark(2000);Alwis Hartmann(2008). Anderson, T.a. Veillette, a., 2008;Wong Pang (2003);Toubia 2005;Bakker, H., Boersma, K. Oreel, S., 2006);Amabile et al (1996);Lyold (1999);Fairbank, J.F., Spangler, W.E. Williams, S.D., 2003.Du Plessis, AJ, Marx, AE Wilson, G 2008 Fairbank, J.F., Spangler, W.E. Williams, S.D., 2003. Carrier C., 1998;Fairbank, J.F., Spangler, W.E. Williams, S.D., 2003;Du Plessis, AJ, Marx, AE Wilson, G 2008;.BaMcConville(1990);Mostaf El-Masry( 2009) 20 Team work Rapp and Eklund 2007; Amabile et al 1996;Aoki 2008;Carreir 1998;Darragh-Jeromos 2005;Mclean 2005;McConville 1990;Shalley Gilson 2004;Baird Wang 2010;Egan 2005;Pissarra Jesuino 2005;Fairbank and Williams 2001. 21 Competition Bakker, H., Boersma, K. Oreel, S., 2006) 22 Support for innovation Lipponen et al 2008;Hultgren 2008 23 employee participation Alves et al 2007;McConville 1990;Lloyd 1996;Fairbank and Williams 2001. ;Cruz et al 2009; Neagoe, L.N. Klein, V.M., 2009 Discussion Suggestion systems have evolved from a traditional suggestion box to sophisticated electronic systems aiming to encourage all employees to take part in suggestion schemes and to rapidly process the ideas received from the employees and put to practical use. Large organizations are focusing on achieving bigger goals at company level as well as at employee level to accrue the tangible as well as intangible benefits. However companys need to carefully implement the program as every organization has its own culture, it needs to tailor the program to meet their organization needs and what they expect from this system must be clearly known. While suggestion schemes have evolved over the decades, the main underlying factor driving this engine is to pursue workplace improvements, process or product innovations. Research in this field has been mainly focused on features of suggestion schemes, guidelines for implementation and critical success factors and critical barriers encompassing the organizational as well as the individual contexts. Research also evidences its contribution as to how organizations have utilized the tool to obtain small workplace improvements through to good sized innovation and if implemented they contribute in building organizations innovation capability. The suggestion making and suggestion implementation are two crucial stages and both are equally important for the success of the scheme and are influenced by a number of factors. Organizations must therefore identify these critical factors to nurture both these stages. The schemes can be applied in any sector to elicit employee creative ideas but must have a formal mechanism to action this. Managers need to be aware of critical success factors that are essential for the success of the schemes. It is clear that suggestion schemes will not yield results without the active involvement of everyone in the organization, and the required resources and support from top management. The suggestion schemes are here to stay mainly because they are the vehicle for innovations. Today we live in a knowledge economy where innovation is not only significant but a key corner stone for an organizations growth and sustainability. The future of the suggestion scheme is bright as a tool for fueling innova tion. Organizations need to recognize and evaluate their schemes to yield its potential benefits. There needs to be sustainabil
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
The bill, titled to provide discretionary authority to an immigration judge to determine that an alien parent of a United States citizen child should not be ordered removed, deported, or excluded from the United States, Ã¢â¬Å"amends the Immigration and Nationality Act, in the case of an alien subject to removal, deportation, or exclusion and who is the parent of a U.S. citizen child, to authorize an immigration judge to decline to order such removal if the judge determines such action to be against the childÃ¢â¬â¢s best interestsÃ¢â¬ . It also states that Ã¢â¬Å"such discretion shall not apply to an alien when the judge determines that the alien is, one, excludable or deportable on security grounds, or two, has engaged in sex trafficking or severe forms of trafficking in personsÃ¢â¬ . This bill was originally introduced to the House Committee on the Judiciary in late January of this year. It was later referred to the subcommittee of Immigration and Border Security in February. Representative Jose Serrano introduced the bill to protect the parents of US citizen natural born children from being deported or removed from the country, who are at illegal status, at discretion of the immigration judge. If the bill was passed, many of the illegal immigrants who have children who are citizens of the United States will be able to stay and be legalized into the country, just because they have a child born on U.S. grounds. The people it would affect are illegally residing on U.S. grounds, but have children who were born here. The government will be positively affected through this bill. The numbers of immigrants in the country will decrease by a significant amount if this bill is passed. Many citizens may find this to be a controversial issue. On one hand, the bill allows for these families to be kept together and not separated from one another, but other citizens may argue that there are too many immigrants residing in the country as is, and permitting the parents of these children to stay would be a mistake. Family is a very important thing in life. Immigrant or not, family is family. Intentional separation of a family is unmoral and wrong. This bill would make a positive impact rather than a wrongful one. It gives this group of illegal parents of citizen children and opportunity and a chance to make a good life and provide for their children. If these parents can prove that they deserve to be here and that they can provide a good life and are willing to work to deliver and meet all the necessities of their children if given the chance, why would it be a negative impact on our government or society to pass this bill? Equality makes the United States the so-called Ã¢â¬Å"land of freedomÃ¢â¬ it is. A mother is a mother, a father is a father, and a child deserves to grow up with the warmth and love from each one. Every child, immigrant parents or not, deserves this opportunity. That is equality.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
What does the word Ã¢â¬ËcardboardÃ¢â¬â¢ denote in the poem? Why has this word been used? In the poem, the word Ã¢â¬ËcardboardÃ¢â¬â¢ stands for the frame that supports and borders the photograph. The photograph shows the poetÃ¢â¬â¢s mother as a twelve-year-old girl with two of her cousins, Betty and Dolly. The word Ã¢â¬ËcardboardÃ¢â¬â¢ has been used to depict that the photograph is many years old. The use of cardboard as a photo frame was common in old times. What has the camera captured? The camera has captured a happy moment from the childhood days of the poetÃ¢â¬â¢s mother. The photograph was taken when the poetÃ¢â¬â¢s mother (at the age of twelve or so) went to a beach holiday with two of her cousins, Betty and Dolly. The captured picture serves as a preserved memory both for the mother as well as the poet. What has not changed over the years? Does this suggest something to you? The lines, Ã¢â¬Ëand the sea, which appears to have changed lessÃ¢â¬â¢ depicts that the sea have stayed the same over the years. It has not changed at all. These lines suggest a sharp contrast to the mortal human life. Human life is transitory and temporary whereas the sea symbolizes permanence, immortality and eternity. The poet makes use of the phrase Ã¢â¬Ëterribly transient feetÃ¢â¬â¢ to highlight the ephemeral nature of human life. The poetÃ¢â¬â¢s mother laughed at the snapshot. What did this laugh indicate? The poetÃ¢â¬â¢s mother laughed while recalling a moment of her past captured in the photograph. She looks back at her childhood days with nostalgia and recollects her innocent joys. Looking at the picture years later brings in her mind the fond memories. She laughs at the way they were dressed up for the beach holiday. But in the midst of these pleasant memories, lies the pain of loss. The pain comes from the acknowledgement that the lovely days of her childhood will never come back to her. What is the meaning of the line Ã¢â¬Å"Both wry with the labored ease of lossÃ¢â¬ ? The context of the above lines is the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s recollection of her childhood days and the poetÃ¢â¬â¢s recollection of her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s laughing face. The mother has fond memories of her past but there is a sense of loss in recalling those moments as they make her realize that the good old times of her childhood will never come back. For the poet, the Ã¢â¬ËlossÃ¢â¬â¢ refers to the loss of her mother. She has fond memories of her dead mother but she misses her laughter and her presence that will never return to the poet. Thus, both remember their pasts with a laugh that conceals sadness as none can re-live those lost moments. The three stanzas depict three different phases. What are they? The first stanza refers to the childhood days of the poetÃ¢â¬â¢s mother when she was twelve years old or so. The stanza depicts a photograph of her mother when she went for a beach holiday with her cousins and uncle. The second stanza refers to the poetÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood days when her mother had become an adult. It depicts her mother recalling her childhood days while looking at the old photograph of hers (mentioned in the first stanza). In the last stanza, the poetÃ¢â¬â¢s adult life is described in which her mother is not with her anymore. She has been dead for almost twelve years. The stanza depicts the poetÃ¢â¬â¢s looking at the same photograph and recollecting her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s laughter. The loss of her mother puts her in utter grief. She has no words to describe the terrible pain of her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s death.
Friday, November 8, 2019
U-2 Spy Plane Incident With Gary Powers On May 1, 1960, aÃ U-2 spy planeÃ piloted by Francis Gary Powers was brought down near Svedlovsk, Soviet Union while performing high altitude reconnaissance. This event had a lasting negative impact on U.S. - U.S.S.R. relations. The details surrounding this event are to this day still shrouded in mystery. Facts About the U-2 Incident Following World War II, the relations between the United States and the Soviet Union grew increasingly wary. The USSR did not agree to a U.S. Open Skies proposal in 1955 and relations continued to deteriorate. The U.S. instituted high altitude reconnaissance flights over the Soviet Union because of this aura of mistrust. The U-2 was the plane of choice for the spying missions. This plane was able to fly extremely high, with an overall ceiling of 70,000 feet. This was key so that the Soviet Union would not be able to detect the planes and see this as an act of warfare for violating their airspace. The CIA took the lead in the U-2 project, keeping the military out of the picture to avoid any possibilities of open conflict. The first flight in this project occurred on July 4, 1956. By 1960, the U.S. had flown numerous successful missions over and around the U.S.S.R. However, a major incident was about to occur.Ã On May 1, 1960, Gary Powers was making a flight that left from Pakistan and landed in Norway. However, the plan was to divert his flight path so that he would fly over Soviet airspace. However, his plane was shot down by a surface-to-air missile nearÃ Sverdlovsk Oblast which was located in the Ural Mountains. Powers was able to parachute to safety, but was captured by the KGB. The Soviet Union was able to recover most of the plane. It had proof of Americas spying over their land. When it was obvious that the Soviet Union had caught the US red-handed, Eisenhower admitted on May 11th to knowledge of the program.Ã Powers was interrogated and then put on trial where he was sentenced to hard labor.Ã Mysteries The conventional story given to explain the crash of the U-2 and the subsequent capture of Gary Powers is that a surface-to-air missile brought down the plane. However, the U-2 spy plane was constructed to be unassailable by conventional weapons. The major benefit of these high altitude planes was their ability to stay above enemy fire. If the plane was flying at its proper height and had been shot down, many question how Powers could have survived. It would have been very likely that he would have died in the explosion or from the high altitude ejection. Therefore, many individuals question the validity of this explanation. Several alternative theories have been put forward to explain the downing of Gary Powers spy plane: Gary Powers was flying his plane below the high flying reconnaissance altitude and was hit by anti-aircraft fire.Gary Powers actually landed the plane in the Soviet Union.There was a bomb on board the plane. The newest and probably least probable explanation offered for the downing of the planes comes from the pilot of a Soviet plane involved in the incident. He claims to have been ordered to ram the spy plane. Admittedly there is little evidence to support this claim. However, it further muddies the waters of explanation. Even though the cause of the incident is shrouded in mystery there is little doubt to the short and long term consequences of the event. Consequences and Significance The Paris Summit between President Eisenhower and Nikita Krushchev collapsed in large part because Krushchev demanded an apology that Eisenhower was unwilling to give.Gary Powers was convicted of espionage and sentenced to 3 years imprisonment and 7 years of hard labor. He only served 1 year 9 months and 9 days before being traded for the Soviet spy Colonel Rudolph Ivanovich Abel.This incident set in motion a pattern of mistrust that culminated in the Cuban Missile Crisis, a time when U.S.-U.S.S.R. relations reached an all time low. No one can predict if the Cold War might have ended sooner had the U-2 incident not occurred.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Symbolism In The Awakening Essays - The Awakening, Edna, Free Essays Symbolism In The Awakening The Awakening contains many symbolic features, such as the way Edna uses art, the birds (the parrot and the mockingbird), sleep, music, and the houses Edna Pontellier lives in, but perhaps two of the most significant symbols are the clothes in the novel, not only of Edna, but also the other characters, and the water, whether it be the ocean, the gulf, or the sea. These two symbols are possibly the most significant because of their direct relationship to Edna Pontellier. Both the water and her clothes have the power to not only emphasize, but help show exactly how and what Edna is feeling. Clothes appear to have significant meaning in The Awakening, enough so that they are mentioned at almost every description of the characters. Edna Pontellier starts the novel fully dressed and appropriately dressed for a woman of her responsibilities, however, at her final moment, she is naked on the beach. Other women in the story also represent their position and the way they feel in the way they dress. For example, Madmoiselle Reisz never changes her clothes. This could possibly symbolize her physical detachment from anything around her, including nature and any suppressed feelings. In contrast, Ednas clothes represent her physical attachment to society. She sheds her clothes the way a snake sheds its skin when it is time for a new one and it does not fit into the old one any longer. Edna doesnt feel like she can fit into society any longer. Madmoiselle Reisz, on the other hand, does not seem to have any desire to be more than what she has been given in the society in which she lives. Therefore, she does not change her clothes, because she does not feel the need for change in her life. Other characters, such as Madame Leburn always have new clothes to cover their bodies. This could, perhaps, represent the constant need to cover their sexuality as women in suppressed roles as wives and mothers. Ednas nakedness at the end of the novel symbolizes her freedom from any claims her children may have on her and shows how her lack of clothes is equal to her lack of responsibility, of her family and the 1890s society. The Ocean is a clear symbol of freedom for Edna. The water is where Edna feels replenished and she begins to realize that she is not satisfied with her life and roles as wife and mother. This happens on the day she learns to swim, which is something she had wanted to accomplish all summer. By learning to swim, she is empowered and becomes more self-aware, of not only her sexuality, but also of who she is and not who society says she should be. The water in The Awakening could be seen to symbolize Ednas rebirth into a more assertive woman. Every time she enters the water, she gets stronger, until finally her strength is more powerful than her love for her children, or her life. At this point she goes so far out to sea, that the water takes back the strength it had geven her. Both the water and the clothes in the novel are very important symbols, both helping to emphasize Edna Pontelliers new life. She starts the novel as a very suppressed woman (fully clothed) and covered by society and its strict roles, and then ends naked as if she is escaping the restricted boundaries of her clothes and of society. The water is a constant source of new life for Edna, and as her clothes are removed to go into the water, they are replaced by a more greater sense of power and energy, the freedom that the water has helped her realize.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
BIOCHEMISTRY CRITICAL REVIEW - Essay Example The merit of RNA lies in its rapidity of expression (Kim and Eberwine, 2010).The main demerit of RNA is its transient nature; however, this may be controlled using stabilizers like StabiLizingUtr (Hayashi et al, 2010) but no such controlling factor was seen in the experimental protocol of Jankowska et al (2008) risking the expression period and genome integration (Kim and Eberwine, 2010). The transfection efficiency reported by Jankowska et al (2008) was about 30% using Lipofectamine 2000 transfection cationic liposome based reagent which is considered a highly efficient reagent (Dalby et al,2004) and has the capability of enhancing transfection efficiency in even poorly infectable cells such as CD34 (Byk et al,1998). Substitution of Lipofectamine2000 could have been done with 7.5% pegylated Lipofectamine which also produces high levels of expression (Decastro et al, 2006). The efficiency of transfection in the HeLa cells could have been increased using novel microfluidic sonoporation system which gives an efficiency of about 68.9% with 77% cell viability post insonication (Rodamporn et al, 2011). Verification of presence of hCG was done my immunohistochemical analyses using primary antibodies since immunohistochemistry is an important tool for biomarker detection (Luongo de Matos et al, 2010). Primary antibodies are used today for various analyses (Lipman, 2005). Detection was done in this experiment by using primary antibodies against hCG and the antigen-antibody complex was detected using flurophore, Cy3-conjugated antibodies. Primary rabbit polyclonal antibodies were used in the experimental protocol which was not absolutely specific for hCGÃ ² thereby increasing chances of non-specific binding. Polyclonal antibodies leads to cross-reactivity between divergent antigens (Frank, 2002).In the experimental protocol blocking buffer was used to reduce the non-specific binding and was
Friday, November 1, 2019
Changing Values in the New Economy - Essay Example Thus globalization of business and the revolution in information technology are the cornerstones of the new economy that has come into existence. The changing circumstances and thought processes in the business environment under the New Economy are undermining the old order and are forcing business to restructure. The emergence of the new economy has also brought changes in the outlook of the investors in that the there has been an increased expectation of return on the capital invested. Investors in the new economy prefer to work on a faster payback of their investments as against their counterparts in the old economy who were satisfied with a nominal and consistent return on their investments and safety of the investments as the deciding factor for any investment decisions. With this background this report analyses the radical changes brought about by the new economy in the outlook of the investors including the institutional investors. Stephen B. Shepard (1997) states that the New Economy has emerged because of the interaction of two broad trends namely the globalization of business and the revolution in information technology. In the New Economy "capitalism is spreading around the world--if not full-blown capitalism, at least the introduction of market forces, freer trade, and widespread deregulation." It boosts productivity, reduces cost, cuts inventories and facilitates electronic commerce. The digital technology is creating new companies and new industries before our eyes. Paper on New Economy from PPI (2000) defines the new economy as knowledge and idea based economy where the key to higher standards of living and job creation is the extent to which innovative ideas and technologies are embedded in services, products and manufacturing processes. The new economy is one where risk, uncertainty and constant changes are the rule rather than the exception. In the new economy there is a transformation process constantly going on which replaces the hierarchical organizations by network learning organizations. It may be interesting to note that almost eleven new companies are created every week in Silicon Valley and one of them went public every five days when the new economic development process started. The new economy has also seen a widespread change in the methods of conclusion of trade transactions, changes in the purchasing methods of consumers and novel methods of meeting the customer needs by innovative approaches in delivering the products ordered over the internet. E Commerce took its root and developed over a short period in the new economy, although initial hiccups were present. The classic example in this type of business is the success of Amazon.com. Thus new business activities using the new technology, media, telecommunication facilities, e commerce and Web portals became inseparable parts of the new economy. 3.0 Outcome of the New Economy: The new economy with the advent of globalization and the rapid development of information technology has resulted in an all round development of various economic sectors. These developments attributable to the modern digital technologies had been a reason for excitement and elation at the end of the last decade. The reported developments were mainly concerned with: the emergence of a knowledge based sector whose huge market and broader